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CANADA’S MOST CONTROVERSIAL PUBLIC FIGURE?. GARY BETTMAN, NHL Commissioner. Health Care and Federal-Provincial Politics in Canada. Gerry Boychuk, February 4 th , 2005. Overview. trends in Canadian federalism a primer on Canadian health care

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Health care and federal provincial politics in canada l.jpg

Health Care and Federal-Provincial Politicsin Canada

Gerry Boychuk, February 4th, 2005


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • trends in Canadian federalism

  • a primer on Canadian health care

  • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

  • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

    • the negotiations

    • the health care deal

    • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • Overview6 l.jpg
    Overview

    • trends in Canadian federalism

    • a primer on Canadian health care

    • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

    • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

      • the negotiations

      • the health care deal

      • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • Trends in canadian federalism l.jpg
    Trends in Canadian Federalism

    • decentralization

    • entanglement


    Explaining decentralization l.jpg
    Explaining Decentralization

    • shifting importance of various enumerated powers

    • lack of representation of provincial interests within the federal government

      • representation of provincial/regional interests primarily through the provincial governments

  • existence of Quebec

    • Quiet Revolution (1960) -- “maitre chez nous”

  • accommodating Quebec

    • asymmetrical federalism vs. decentralization of power to all provinces

      • generally favoured the latter


  • Federal provincial entanglement l.jpg
    Federal-Provincial Entanglement

    • explaining entanglement

      • division of powers spells out tools more than areas of responsibility

      • division of powers not suited to emerging policy problems

      • vertical fiscal disequilibrium

        • federal spending power

    • prevailing views of entanglement

      • pragmatic

        • federalism should be about ‘what works’ – “subsidiarity”

        • entanglement is inefficient, ineffective

      • principled

        • democratic deficit

        • entanglement undermines the constitution

          • basis of our division of powers is the federal deal not simply concerns about what works best


    Overview10 l.jpg
    Overview

    • trends in Canadian federalism

    • a primer on Canadian health care

    • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

    • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

      • the negotiations

      • the health care deal

      • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • Universal public health care in canada a primer l.jpg
    Universal Public Health Care in Canada – A Primer

    • government role in health care in Canada

      • hospital insurance

        • Saskatchewan, 1947

        • federal hospital insurance, 1957

      • medical care (e.g. physician) insurance

        • Saskatchewan, 1962

        • federal Medicare, 1966


    Universal public health care in canada a primer12 l.jpg
    Universal Public Health Care in Canada – A Primer

    • provincial role

      • primary jurisdiction

      • actually provide public health insurance

  • federal role

    • transfers funds to the provinces

      • federal spending power

    • set and enforce national principles under Canada Health Act (CHA)

      • comprehensive, universal, portable, accessible, public administration

        • no province has ever been penalized under these provisions of CHA (despite obvious infractions)

      • banned extra-billing and user fees


  • Differences public policy health insurance in the us canada l.jpg
    Differences – Public Policy & Health Insurance in the US & Canada

    • public health insurance for hospital care and medical care is universal in Canada (and categorical in the US)

    • public health insurance in Canada is compulsory

      • private provision of insurance for publicly-insured health services is prohibited in Canada (but not in the US)

    • important differences in funding (single-public-payer in Canada, and multiple-payer in the US), less significant differences in modes of delivery


    Overview14 l.jpg
    Overview

    • trends in Canadian federalism

    • a primer on Canadian health care

    • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

    • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

      • the negotiations

      • the health care deal

      • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • The symbolism of health care in canada l.jpg

    “We want a Canada where our universal health care system is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act. They are part of who we are — a moral statement about fundamental fairness — that all Canadians should stand equal before our health care system.” Prime Minister Paul Martin Reply to the Throne Speech January 2004

    The Symbolism of Health Care in Canada


    Slide17 l.jpg

    is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act. The patron saint of Canada is Tommy Douglas. Any time someone has a new idea about the health-care system, someone else invokes the sacred memory of St. Tommy and that's the end of it.”

    Margarent Wente’s “Guide For Expat Americans” G&M, Nov.9th 2004


    Health care and national identity l.jpg
    Health Care and is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act. National Identity

    How important are the following to the Canadian identity

    … Canada’s health care system?

    Source: Environics Focus Canada Survey, March 1996


    Why is health care so politically important l.jpg
    Why is Health Care So Politically Important? is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • the provision of health services touches every individual Canadian directly

      • “The federal government has few direct touch points with individual Canadians. So whenever it has an opportunity to deal directly with its citizens, it should do so, to increase the federal government’s relevance to their daily lives. The more Ottawa becomes involved with Canadians, the more individuals are likely to see the value of the national government, nationalism and our federation.” (Goldfarb, 2004)


    Why is health care so politically important20 l.jpg
    Why is Health Care So Politically Important? is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • the provision of health services touches every individual Canadian directly

    • other spheres of government competence increasingly limited

      • federal government

        • trade policy and tarriffs

        • industrial development

        • monetary policy

        • fiscal policy (taxing and spending)

      • what is left for the federal government to do??


    Overview21 l.jpg
    Overview is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • trends in Canadian federalism

    • a primer on Canadian health care

    • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

    • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

      • the negotiations

      • the health care deal

      • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • Health care in the federal election 2004 l.jpg
    Health Care in the Federal Election , 2004 is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • Prime Minister Martin promised to...

      • “fix health care for a generation”

      • undertake negotiations with the provinces and not abandon talks until a deal was struck

      • to negotiate in an open, televised forum


    Slide23 l.jpg

    PM Martin is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    The Premiers

    First Ministers’ Meeting on Health Care, September 2004


    Overview24 l.jpg
    Overview is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • trends in Canadian federalism

    • a primer on Canadian health care

    • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

    • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

      • the negotiations

      • the health care deal

      • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • Health summit the negotiations l.jpg
    Health Summit -- The Negotiations... is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • federal-provincial diplomacy and the ‘democratic deficit’

      • federal provincial gamesmanship

      • democratic deficit – closed door negotiations

  • Health Summit

    • televised negotiations

      • decrease the level of acrimony (public grandstanding)

      • enrich the substantive debate about health care

      • transparency


  • Media reports l.jpg
    Media Reports is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • “Health Care’s Gong Show,” National Post, 14 September 2004, A18.

    • “Premiers Blast PM’s ‘Silly’ Offer,” Globe and Mail, 14 September 2004

    • “This process has been a farce. Federal negotiating tactics have been disgusting.” Newfoundland Premier Danny Williams

    • John Ibbotson, “Amid All the Acrimony, They Could Still Cut a Deal,” Globe and Mail, 14 September 2004.


    Slide27 l.jpg

    Ralph “I’m Outta Here” Klein, Premier of Alberta is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.


    Slide28 l.jpg

    Alberta Premier Ralph Klein is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.


    Slide30 l.jpg

    Manitoba Premier Gary Doer is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.


    Slide33 l.jpg

    “Paul, I am is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act. not your son...I am the Premier of Quebec.” Jean Charest (reportedly to Paul Martin during closed door negotiations)


    Health summit the negotiations34 l.jpg
    Health Summit -- The Negotiations... is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • federal-provincial diplomacy and the ‘democratic deficit’

      • federal provincial gamesmanship

      • democratic deficit – closed door negotiations

  • Health Summit

    • televised negotiations

      • decrease the level of acrimony (public grandstanding)

      • enrich the substantive debate about health care

      • transparency


  • Overview35 l.jpg
    Overview is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • trends in Canadian federalism

    • a primer on Canadian health care

    • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

    • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

      • the negotiations

      • the health care deal

      • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • Health summit 2004 the health care deal l.jpg
    Health Summit, 2004 – The Health Care Deal is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • federal financial contribution

      • $41 billion over 10 years

        • close short-term Romanow gap

          • i.e. federal contribution = 25% of provincial costs

        • 6% escalator

        • no change in structure of funding


    Health summit 2004 the health care deal37 l.jpg
    Health Summit, 2004 – The Health Care Deal is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • Wait Times Reduction Fund

      • setting targets

        • comparable indicators to be established by each jurisdiction and wait times reported to citizens (Dec. 2005)

        • medically-acceptable wait times established (Dec.2005)

        • targets established by each jurisdiction (Dec.2007)

        • by 2008, provinces to begin to report in progress in meeting wait time targets

      • strategy to lower waiting times?

        • to be determined by each province


    Health summit 2004 the health care deal38 l.jpg
    Health Summit, 2004 – The Health Care Deal is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • primary care reform

      • duplicates commitment of HCRA, 2003

      • offer 24/7 access to 50% of the population by 2011

  • home care

    • duplicates commitment of HCRA, 2003

    • coverage for up to 2 weeks of homecare of various types

  • Pharmacare

    • commit to establishing a Ministerial Task Force (June 2006) to “develop, assess and cost options for catastrophic pharmaceutical coverage

    • HCRA, 2003: commitment to “ensure that Canadians have reasonable access to catastrophic drug coverage by the end of 2005/06”


  • Health summit 2004 the health care deal39 l.jpg
    Health Summit, 2004 – The Health Care Deal is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • emphasized symbolism over substance

    • demonstrates the degree of entanglement


    Overview40 l.jpg
    Overview is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    • trends in Canadian federalism

    • a primer on Canadian health care

    • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

    • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

      • the negotiations

      • the health care deal

      • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • Slide41 l.jpg

    REACTIONS TO THE HEALTH SUMMIT AGREEMENT... is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act.

    “...the most important federal-provincial deal since the constitution...” Globe & Mail

    “...a triumph for Canadian federalism” Globe & Mail

    “...a debacle...” National Post


    Slide42 l.jpg

    “Health is Not the Issue” is a proud example of our national values at work… Health care is the nation’s first priority. Quality care; timely care. Care that is accessible regardless of income; portable right across Canada; and publicly funded. We are committed irrevocably to the principles of the Canada Health Act. National Post Editorial Headline, Sept.13 2004


    Slide43 l.jpg

    “Ask your new Canadian friends to explain the ins and outs of asymmetrical federalism to you. They will be delighted at your interest. But don't ask them the words to the national anthem. They'll only be embarrassed.” Margarent Wente’s “Guide For Expat Americans” G&M, Nov.9th 2004


    Slide44 l.jpg

    “Ask your new Canadian friends to explain the ins and outs of asymmetrical federalism to you. They will be delighted at your interest. But don't ask them the words to the national anthem. They'll only be embarrassed.” Margarent Wente’s “Guide For Expat Americans” G&M, Nov.9th 2004


    Health summit 2004 federalism aspects l.jpg
    Health Summit, 2004 – Federalism Aspects of

    • special side-agreement with Quebec

      • formal recognition of the principle of asymetrical federalism

        • “…flexible federalism that notably allows for the existence of specific agreements and arrangements adapted to Québec’s specificity…”

      • criticisms

        • may have implications for the application of the CHA principles in Quebec


    Health summit 2004 federalim aspects l.jpg
    Health Summit, 2004 – Federalim Aspects of

    • assymetrical federalism and the context of the health care deal, 2004

      • “A Second Quiet Revolution?” National Post Editorial Headline, Sept.16 2004

      • “A Province of Private Clinics” National Post, Sept.9 2004

      • “Don’t Push Quebec, PM Warned: Forced Deal Would Backfire, Report” National Post, Sept.9 2004

    • Andre Senikas, President Quebec Medical Association:

      • “If other provinces tried to set up what we have, they’d have a revolt on their hands. But in Quebec, it’s accepted.”

      • “Universal health coverage is still important to Quebecers, but it’s certainly not a defining characteristic of their national identity. In places like Ontario, people talk about the health care system being public like its a religion. In Quebec, people think differently.”

      • “Mr. Klein has not suggested anything Quebec governments have not been doing for years. [...] When you hear Mr. Charest and Mr. Klein talk, they are totally on the same wavelength...”


    Health summit 2004 federalism aspects47 l.jpg
    Health Summit, 2004 – Federalism Aspects of

    • special side-agreement with Quebec

      • formal recognition of the principle of asymetrical federalism

        • “…flexible federalism that notably allows for the existence of specific agreements and arrangements adapted to Québec’s specificity…”

      • criticisms

        • may have implications for the application of the CHA principles in Quebec

        • may have implications for the application of the CHA in other provinces


    Overview49 l.jpg
    Overview of

    • trends in Canadian federalism

    • a primer on Canadian health care

    • the importance of health care in Canadian politics

    • First Ministers’ Health Summit, 2004

      • the negotiations

      • the health care deal

      • broader implications for Canadian federalism

  • conclusions


  • Health care and federal provincial relations conclusions l.jpg
    Health Care and Federal-Provincial Relations -- Conclusions of

    • illustrates two central trends of Canadian federalism

      • decentralization

      • entanglement

  • illustrates the central problem of executive federalism (federal-provincial diplomacy)

    • transparency and the democratic deficit

  • illustrates the centrality of the politics of territorial integration in federal-provincial relations and public policy (esp.health care)

    • competitive state building

      • nation-building vs. province-building

  • illustrates the central tension of Canadian federalism

    • accommodating provincial distinctiveness (esp. Quebec) while maintaining national unity


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