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Ecosystem Ecology the movement of materials and energy through an ecosystem Section 22-1 Pages 415-419 Producers Manufacture their own food Capture energy and use it to make organic molecules There are two types: Photosynthetic = use energy from light

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Ecosystem Ecology

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Ecosystem ecology l.jpg

Ecosystem Ecology

the movement of materials and energy through an ecosystem

Section 22-1

Pages 415-419


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Producers

  • Manufacture their own food

  • Capture energy and use it to make organic molecules

  • There are two types:

    • Photosynthetic = use energy from light

    • Chemosynthetic = use energy from inorganic chemicals

  • Examples = plants, protists, and bacteria


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Gross Primary Productivity

- is the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture energy


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Biomass

- is the organic material in an ecosystem


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Standing Crop Biomass


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Net Primary Productivity

= gross primary productivity – rate of respiration in producers

  • is the rate at which biomass accumulates

  • is expressed as: energy/area/year (kcal/m2/y) mass/area/year (g/m2/y)


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Primary Productivity of Different Ecosystems


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Consumers

  • obtain energy by ingesting or consuming organic molecules made by other organisms

  • grouped according to the food they eat

    • Herbivores = eat producers

    • Carnivores = eat consumers

    • Omnivores = eat both producers and consumers

    • Detritivores = eat garbage

    • Decomposers = break down dead tissues and waste into smaller molecules


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Movement of Stuff Through Ecosystems


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Trophic Levels

  • an organism’s position in the sequence of energy transfers

  • most ecosystems contain only three or four trophic levels

    Producers = 1st level

    Herbivores = 2nd level

    Carnivores = 3rd level +


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Movement of Energy


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Food Chain

  • a pathway of feeding relationships


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Food Chains


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Grazing Food Chain


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Food Web


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Energy Movement & Nutrient Cycling


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Note 10% energy transfer

between trophic levels

Pyramid of Net Production


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Ecological Efficiency


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Why is energy transfer so low?

  • Energy is reflected.

  • Energy is lost when some parts cannot be digested.

  • Energy is lost as waste.

  • Energy is lost in cellular respiration.

  • Energy is lost as heat.

  • Organisms die without being eaten.


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Ecological Efficiency

100 * 6 / 67 = 9%

100 * 67 / 1478 = 4.5%

100 * 3,368 / 20,810 = 17%


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Pyramid Shape

  • A diagram of trophic level relationships

  • Width of bar correlates with the number

  • Three primary types of diagrams

    • Energy

    • Biomass

    • Population numbers


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Biomass Pyramids


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Pyramid of Numbers


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Ecological Biomagnification


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