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Cybernetics - a different perspective Dr Richard Mitchell Cybernetics, School of Systems Engineering The University of Reading

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Cybernetics - a different perspective

  • Dr Richard Mitchell

  • Cybernetics, School of Systems Engineering

  • The University of Reading

  • Cybernetic principles are applicable to a great variety of systems, technological, biological, environmental or a mixture. This talk demonstrates this by illustrating the application of feedback in diverse situations.

  • For more info, see

  • http://www.cyber.rdg.ac.uk

  • [email protected]

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Cybernetics – a different perspective

In each of the windows, and the associated descriptions later in the talk, we see different applications of feedback – which is key to all Cybernetic systems.

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Standard & Cybernetic Approaches

Standard View: Aristotelian (Greek) - Cause & Effect

The Open Loop View

The (practical) Cybernetic view :

Closed Loop –

Has Feeback

  • Irony: Cybernetics comes from a Greek Word!

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Feedback Problems ?

  • System more complicated

  • Can lead to run away disasters

Arms race (human or animal) is similar

However such feedback can be useful for quick changes

Feedback can also be advantageous - for instance for control

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Feedback Advantages - for Control

This will be illustrated by first considering the steersman

Without control

– like having

eyes closed

With control

– looking

where you

are going

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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As Applied To Other Systems

Speed Control of Car (or other vehicle)

Positioning Robot Gripper

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Temperature Control

Of Rooms

Of Human Body

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Learning

Feedback Control fine for some simple systems.

For more advanced, need intelligent control .. Must learn

Learning is a feedback process:

‘You learn by your mistakes’

Trial and Error – used by our Robots / Babies

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Neural Network Learning

Like brain has network of neurons

Each neuron sums products of each input and weight of connection

Provide inputs, calculate outputs

But must learn weights

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Human Computer Interaction

Just positioning a mouse is a feedback process

Ultimate HCI is ‘Virtual Reality’ – human computer loop

Not only view world, but hear, feel, smell it also …

Also, Augmented Reality - mixed real and virtual world.

Teleoperation - remote control where operator given input to suggest he/she at remote location. Needs force feedback

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Daisyworld – to illustrate feedback

  • Lovelock’s Imaginary world to demonstrate Gaia principle

    • Life and Earth work together to mutual advantage

  • Grey Planet - black/white daisy seeds in soil

  • Daisies grow best at 22OC No grow if < 7OC or > 37OC

Daisyworld’s Sun is heating up - just like Earth’s

What happens to Daisyworld’s temperature?

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Daisyworld Continued

Once 7OC daisies grow, heating or cooling, until too hot

Note, for long period, temp constant – better if more species!

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Cybernetics new – but feedback old

Watt Steam Engine Governor

Control speed of steam engine

Also 250 BC Water Clock

Measures Time

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Degrees in Systems Engineering

Comp Eng

EE & CS

Comp Sci

Elec Eng

IT

Sys Eng

IT & Man

AI & Cyb

EE & Cyb

Robotics

CS & Cyb

Cybernetics

BioM & Cyb

Cyb & Cont

Degrees accredited by IEE, InstMC, BCS.

Some MEng, some BSc/BEng; some ‘applied’ year in industry

Also have MScs in Cybernetics, Informatics and

Network Centred Computing

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Research in Systems Engineering

Cybernetic

Intelligence

Ambient & Pervasive

Intelligence

Interactive

Systems

Parallel Emergent

Distributed Algorithms

Instrumentation &

Signal Processing

Informatics Research

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Interactive R2-D2 Toy

Designed using cybernetic principles by ex-Cybernetics lecturer and graduate, Dave Keating.

Arose from research here on mobile robots …

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Robotics Research

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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More on Robotics

Yorick – Robot Head

Prosthetic Hand

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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GENTLE – robot rehab for strokes

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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HAPTIC and VR Research

In your own little world!

Phantom – so can ‘feel’

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Implant - ‘Cyborg’ experiment

?Ultimate human computer interaction

chip (smaller than £1 coin) implanted …

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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Terahertz and Infra-Red

THz .. Latest part of e.m. spectrum to be used .. For sensing, security …

Infra-Red Multi-Layer Filters .. For measuring gases … used in space

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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All this happens

In this modern building

On the picturesque campus At the heart of the Thames Valley .. Easy access to rest of UK … and to jobs

Cybernetics – an Introduction

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2006


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