Cultural Competence: Can it be Taught?
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Cultural Competence: Can it be Taught?







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Cultural Competence: Can it be Taught?. Barbara W. Sugland, M.P.H., Sc.D. Maternal & Child Health Institute: Addressing Health Disparities St. Paul, Minnesota June 27, 2002. Keynote Overview. What is Cultural Competence? Culture vs. Race/Ethnicity Competence vs. Sensitivity
Cultural Competence: Can it be Taught?

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Slide 1

Cultural Competence:Can it be Taught?

Barbara W. Sugland, M.P.H., Sc.D.

Maternal & Child Health Institute:

Addressing Health Disparities

St. Paul, Minnesota

June 27, 2002

Slide 2

Keynote Overview

  • What is Cultural Competence?

    • Culture vs. Race/Ethnicity

    • Competence vs. Sensitivity

    • Stages of Cultural Competence

Slide 3

Keynote Overview

  • Why is it Important?

    • Increased Ethnic Diversity;

    • Ethnic Disparities in Health;

    • Providers’ Background Different From Patient

Slide 4

Keynote Overview

  • How to Achieve it?

    • Organizational Transformation

    • Personal Transformation

Slide 5

What is Cultural Competence?

Cultural Competence

A set of congruent practices, skills, attitudes, policies and structures, which come together in a system, agency, or among professionals, which enable that system, agency or professionals to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.

Cross, T.L., Bazron, B.J., Dennis, K.W., Isaac, M.R. (1999)

Slide 6

What is Cultural Competence?

Cultural Competence

  • Congruence across aspects of service delivery;

  • Aspects of service include:

    • Practices, skills, attitudes (Individual);

    • Practices, policies, structures (Organization)

Slide 7

Culture vs. Race/Ethnicity

Culture

  • Shared values, beliefs, traditions, norms, customs, folklore, art, history of a group of people

  • A foundation – “grounds” you

  • Passed on from generation to generation;

Slide 8

Culture vs. Race/Ethnicity

Culture

  • Dynamic & evolving;

  • Shapes attitudes & values;

  • Shapes styles and modes of communication;

  • Shapes notions about health & illness;

  • Shapes health-seeking behavior.

Slide 9

Culture vs. Race/Ethnicity

Race

  • Historically ascribed to groups of individuals categorized as biologically distinct.

  • Modern Times – “race” is a social construction

  • Physical, behavioral and cultural differences incorrectly ascribed to race;

Slide 10

Culture vs. Race/Ethnicity

Ethnicity

  • A subgroup that shares common ancestry, geography, history, language or culture;

Slide 11

Sensitivity vs. Competence

Cultural Sensitivity

  • Heightened awareness of cultural differences

  • Increased ability to interpret and respond to non-verbal or cultural cues

  • Willingness and ability to adapt behavior

Slide 12

Sensitivity vs. Competence

Cultural Competence

  • Incorporate plans, policies & practices to respond to differences

  • Cultural sensitivity is necessary but insufficient for achieving competence

Slide 13

Stages of Cultural Competence

Cultural

Proficiency

Cultural

Competence

Cultural

Pre-Competence

Cultural

Blindness

Cultural

Incapacity

Cultural

Destructiveness

Slide 14

Stages of Cultural Competence

  • Destructiveness-- actively working to destroy or diminish well-being

  • Incapacity -- not actively seeking to destroy, but not actively working to improve well-being

  • Blindness-- unbiased treatment is the most

    effective treatment

Slide 15

Stages of Cultural Competence

  • Pre-Competence -- Belief, desire & commitment, not clear on how to move forward

  • Competence-- Belief, desire & commitment + structure, systems & policies in place

  • Advanced Competence -- Competence + Vocal advocates for competent care

Slide 16

Progressing Toward Cultural Competence

  • Conditions for Progress (Individual)

  • Awareness

  • Knowledge

  • Skill

  • Practice (cultural encounters)

  • Personal will

Slide 17

Progress Toward Cultural Competence

  • Conditions for Progress (Organizational)

  • Mission & values support competence

  • Policies promote it

  • Programs and services reflect it

  • Hiring strategies facilitate diversity and competence

  • Mechanisms of accountability to reward &

    sanction

Slide 18

Models of Competence

LIVE & LEARN (Carballeira, 1997)

  • LIVE -- Like, Inquire, Visit, and Experience

  • LEARN -- Listen, Evaluate, Acknowledge, Recommend, and Negotiate

Slide 19

Models of Cultural Competence

  • Sunrise (Leininger, 1993,1999)

    • Stresses world view and social structure of client

    • Several dimensions – Cultural, religious & spiritual, economic, educational, technological, kinship & social, political/legal

    • Providers must explore and validate what the patient says and does

Slide 20

Why is Cultural Competence Important?

  • Ethnic Disparities in Health

    • Rates of disease & morbidity higher among racial/ethnic subgroups

    • Some improvements – gains modest and uneven

Slide 21

Why is Cultural Competence Important?

  • Increased Ethnic Diversity

    • Non-whites ~ 31% of US Population

    • Increase of 25% since 1990

    • Density of Ethnic Populations

  • Providers’ Background Different From Patient

Slide 22

Why is Cultural Competence Important

  • Context for Understanding and Responding to Differences

  • Guidance for How to Connect with Patients;

  • Framework for Enhancing Quality of Care

Slide 23

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Achieving Competence Requires:

    • Organizational Transformation

      • Philosophy

      • Structure, practices, protocols

      • Partnership & collaboration

    • Personal Transformation

      • Notions about self relative to others

      • Capacity (skills and proficiency)

      • Courage

Slide 24

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Practices of Successful Organizations:

    • Define Culture Broadly

      • Beyond ethnicity, heritage, language

      • Shared attributes (gender, sexual orientation)

      • Shared life experiences (violence, homelessness)

Slide 25

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Practices of Successful Organizations:

    • Value client’s cultural beliefs

      • Genuine concern and respect

      • Ability to learn about needs and challenges of community

      • Willing to understand clients’ life experiences

Slide 26

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Practices of Successful Organizations:

    • Recognize Communication is Complex

      • Communication is more than shared language

        • Language differs across cultures

        • Linguistic variation within cultures

        • Cultural variation within language

        • Variation in literacy for all groups

Slide 27

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Practices of Successful Organizations:

    • Facilitate Exchange between Provider and Community

      • Create a “learning loop”

    • Active Community Involvement

      • Community Advisory Boards

      • Community Volunteers, Lay Workers

Slide 28

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Practices of Successful Organizations:

    • Collaborate with Other Agencies

      • Health & Educational Institutions

      • Health & Social Service

      • Health & CBO’s

Slide 29

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Practices of Successful Organizations:

    • Institutionalized Cultural Competence

      • Mission & values support competence

      • Hiring and job descriptions stipulate it

      • Ongoing staff training & development

      • Services & outreach reflect it

      • Mechanism for accountability and feedback

Slide 30

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Personal Transformation

    • Know and Understand Culture (broadly)

    • Value Diversity

    • Seek Opportunities to Experience Culture

Slide 31

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Personal Transformation

    • Self-reflection and Self-examination

      • Styles, Attitudes & Behaviors

      • Limitations

      • Biases

Slide 32

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Start small, identify “winnable battles”

  • Organizational

    • Agency mission, staff retreats, workshops

    • Anonymous feedback from clients

    • Anonymous feedback from staff

  • Personal

    • Attend diversity or healing racism workshop

    • Ask clients and colleagues for feedback

      • Clients and colleagues from different backgrounds

Slide 33

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Organizational

    • Identify partners and establish partnerships

    • Explore ways to collaborate and support

  • Personal

    • Partner with colleagues

    • Broaden network of co-workers and contacts

    • Increase exposure to diverse groups

Slide 34

Achieving Cultural Competence

  • Lobby for change;

    • Funding to deliver & sustain competence

    • Flexibility in service delivery strategies

    • Staff training and continuing education

  • Professional memberships

  • Academic institutions and training centers

  • Research, Public Policy & Advocacy

  • Organizations


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