Nomenclature of
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 132

Larry Emme Chemeketa Community College PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 109 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds Chapter 6. Larry Emme Chemeketa Community College. Common and Systematic Names.

Download Presentation

Larry Emme Chemeketa Community College

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Common and systematic names

Nomenclature of

Inorganic Compounds

Chapter 6

Larry Emme

Chemeketa Community College


Common and systematic names

Common and Systematic Names


Common and systematic names

Chemical nomenclature is the system of names that chemists use to identify compounds. Two classes of names exist: common names and systematic names.


Common and systematic names

  • Common names are arbitrary names.

  • They are not based on the composition of the compound.

  • They are based on an outstanding chemical or physical property.

  • Chemists prefer systematic names.

    • Systematic names precisely identify the chemical composition of the compound.

    • The present system of inorganic chemical nomenclature was devised by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).


  • Elements and ions

    Elements and Ions


    The formula for most elements is the symbol of the element

    The formula for most elements is the symbol of the element.

    SodiumNa

    PotassiumK

    ZincZn

    ArgonAr

    MercuryHg

    LeadPb

    CalciumCa


    Common and systematic names

    These 7 elements are found in nature as diatomic molecules.

    HydrogenH2

    NitrogenN2

    OxygenO2

    Fluorine F2

    ChlorineCl2

    BromineBr2

    Iodine I2


    Common and systematic names

    Ions


    Common and systematic names

    A charged particle known as an ion can be produced by adding or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    If one or more electrons are removed from a neutral atom a positive ion is formed. A positive ion is called a cation.

    remove e-

    neutral atom


    Common and systematic names

    Positive Ion Formation: Loss of Electrons From a Neutral Atom

    • Na  Na+ +e-

    • Ca  Ca2+ +2e-

    • Al  Al3+ +3e-


    Naming cations

    Naming Cations


    Cations are named the same as their parent atoms

    Cations are named the same as their parent atoms


    Atom cation name of cation

    sodium (Na)

    Na+

    sodium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Atom cation name of cation1

    calcium (Ca)

    Ca2+

    calcium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Atom cation name of cation2

    lithium (Li)

    Li+

    lithium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Atom cation name of cation3

    magnesium (Mg)

    Mg2+

    magnesium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Atom cation name of cation4

    strontium (Sr)

    Sr2+

    strontium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Common and systematic names

    A charged particle known as an ion can be produced by adding or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    If one or more electrons are added to a neutral atom a negative ion is formed. A negative ion is called an anion.

    add e-

    neutral atom


    Naming anions

    Naming Anions


    An anion consisting of one element has the stem of the parent element and an ide ending

    An anion consisting of one element has the stem of the parent element and an –ideending


    Atom anion name of anion

    fluorine (F)

    F-

    stem

    fluoride ion

    AtomAnionName of Anion


    Atom anion name of anion1

    chlorine (Cl)

    Cl-

    stem

    chloride ion

    AtomAnionName of Anion


    Atom anion name of anion2

    stem

    AtomAnionName of Anion

    bromine (Br)

    Br-

    bromide ion


    Atom anion name of anion3

    stem

    AtomAnionName of Anion

    nitrogen (N)

    N3-

    nitride ion


    Atom anion name of anion4

    stem

    AtomAnionName of Anion

    phosphorous (P)

    P3-

    phosphide ion


    Atom anion name of anion5

    stem

    AtomAnionName of Anion

    oxygen (O)

    O2-

    oxide ion


    Binary compounds

    Binary Compounds


    Binary compounds contain only two different elements

    Binary compounds contain only two different elements.


    Binary ionic compounds consist of a metal combined with a non metal

    Binary ionic compounds consist of a metal combined with a non-metal.


    A binary ionic compounds containing a metal forming only one type of cation one charge

    A. Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal Forming Only One Type of Cation (one charge)


    Type i cations include

    Type I Cations include:

    • the Group A metals

    • Hydrogen

    • B metals with one charge: Zn+2, Cd+2, Ag+

    • The polyatomic ion NH4+


    Common and systematic names

    • The chemical name is composed of the name of the metal followed by the name of the nonmetal which has been modified to an identifying stem plus the suffix –ide.

    • Using this system the number of atoms of each element present is not expressed in the name.


    Common and systematic names

    Name of Metal

    + Stem of Nonmetal

    plus -ide ending


    Common and systematic names

    (ur)


    Common and systematic names

    If hydrogen is written first in the formula, it is treated as if it were a group IA metal.


    Name the compound caf 2

    Name the Compound CaF2

    Step 1 From the formula it is a two-element compound and follows the rules for binary compounds.


    Name the compound caf 21

    Name the Compound CaF2

    Step 2 The compound is composed of Ca, a metal and F, a nonmetal. Ca forms only a +2 cation. Thus, call the positive part of the compound calcium.


    Name the compound caf 22

    Name the Compound CaF2

    Step 3 Modify the name of the second element to the stem fluor- and add the binary ending –ideto form the name of the negative part, fluoride.


    Name the compound caf 23

    Name the Compound CaF2

    Step 4 The name of the compound is therefore calcium fluoride.


    Examples

    Examples


    Compound name

    name of metal

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    NaCl

    sodiumchloride


    Compound name1

    name of metal

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    HCl(g)

    hydrogenchloride

    For naming purposes only, hydrogen is treated as if it were a group IA metal.


    Compound name2

    name of metal

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    MgCl2

    magnesiumchloride


    Compound name3

    name of metal

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    K2O

    potassiumoxide


    Compound name4

    name of metal

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    Na3P

    sodiumphosphide


    Common and systematic names

    B. Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a MetalThat Can Form Two or More Types of Cations (two or more charges)


    Type ii cations include

    Type II Cations include:

    • B metals with two charges

    • Zn+2, Cd+2, Ag+ are excluded


    Name the compound fes

    Name the Compound FeS

    Step 1 This compound follows the rules for a binary compound.


    Name the compound fes1

    Name the Compound FeS

    Step 2 In sulfides, the charge on S is –2. Therefore the charge on Fe must be +2, and the name of the positive part of the compound is iron (II).(or ferrous)

    Step 2 It is a compound of Fe, a metal, and S, a nonmetal, and Fe is a transition metal that has more than one type of cation.


    Name the compound fes2

    Name the Compound FeS

    Step 3 We have already determined that the name of the negative part of the compound will be sulfide.


    Name the compound fes3

    Name the Compound FeS

    Step 4 The name of FeS is iron(II) sulfide.(orferrous sulfide)


    The iupac stock system

    The IUPAC (Stock)System


    Common and systematic names

    The metals in the center of the periodic table (including the transition metals) often form more than one type of cation.


    Common and systematic names

    Each ion of iron forms a different compound with the same anion.

    Fe2+

    FeS

    Fe3+

    Fe2S3


    Common and systematic names

    In the IUPAC System the charge on the cation is designated by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    IUPAC devised the Stock System of nomenclature to name compounds of metals that have more than one type of cation.

    The nonmetal name ends in -ide.


    Common and systematic names

    Stock SystemLower Charge Higher ChargeElementFormulaNameFormulaName

    IUPAC SystemHigher ChargeElementFormulaNameFormulaName

    Lower Charge

    Copper Cu+copper(I) Cu2+copper(II)

    Iron Fe2+iron(II) Fe3+iron(III)

    Lead Pb2+lead(II) Pb4+lead(IV)

    Mercury Hg22+mercury(I) Hg2+mercury(II)

    Tin Sn2+tin(II) Sn4+tin(IV)


    Examples1

    Examples


    Common and systematic names

    +2

    -1

    iron(II)

    chloride

    +3

    -1

    iron(III)

    chloride

    iron(II) chloride

    FeCl2

    compound name

    ion charge

    ion name

    iron(III) chloride

    FeCl3


    Common and systematic names

    +2

    -1

    tin(II)

    bromide

    +4

    -1

    tin(IV)

    bromide

    tin(II) bromide

    SnBr2

    compound name

    ion charge

    ion name

    tin(IV) bromide

    SnBr4


    The classical system

    The Classical System


    Common and systematic names

    In the Classical System the name of the metal (usually the Latin name) is modified with the suffixes -ous and ic.


    Common and systematic names

    Metal name ends in

    -ouslower charge

    -ichigher charge

    nonmetal name ends in

    -ide


    Examples2

    Examples


    Common and systematic names

    +2

    -1

    ferrous

    chloride

    +3

    -1

    ferric

    chloride

    ferrous chloride

    FeCl2

    ion charge

    ion name

    compound name

    ferric chloride

    FeCl3


    Common and systematic names

    +2

    -1

    stannous

    bromide

    +4

    -1

    stannic

    bromide

    stannous bromide

    SnBr2

    compound name

    ion charge

    ion name

    stannic bromide

    SnBr4


    Common and systematic names

    Ion Names: Classical System

    Lower Charge Higher Charge


    Binary compounds containing two nonmetals

    Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals


    Compounds between nonmetals are molecular not ionic

    Compounds between nonmetals are molecular, not ionic.


    Common and systematic names

    Si

    B

    P

    H

    C

    S

    I

    Br

    N

    Cl

    O

    F

    In a compound formed between two nonmetals, the element that occurs first in this series is named first.


    Prefixes

    Prefixes


    Common and systematic names

    A Greek prefix is placed before the name of each element to indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.


    Common and systematic names

    di = 2

    tri = 3

    tetra = 4

    penta = 5

    hexa = 6

    hepta = 7

    octa = 8

    nona = 9

    deca = 10

    Mono is rarely used when naming the first element.

    • mono = 1


    Examples3

    Examples


    Common and systematic names

    indicates twonitrogen atoms

    indicates threeoxygen atoms

    dinitrogen trioxide

    N2O3


    Common and systematic names

    indicates onephosphorous atom

    indicates fivechlorine atoms

    phosphorous pentachloride

    PCl5


    Common and systematic names

    indicates twochlorine atoms

    indicates sevenoxygen atoms

    dichlorine heptaoxide

    Cl2O7


    Common and systematic names

    Determine the Name of PCl5

    Step 1

    • There are 2 elements present.

    • The compound is binary.

    • Phosphorous and chlorine are nonmetals so the rules for naming binary compounds of 2 nonmetals apply.

    • Phosphorous is named first. Therefore the compound is a chloride.


    Common and systematic names

    Determine the Name of PCl5

    Step 2

    • No prefix is needed for phosphorous because each molecule of PCl5 has only one phosphorous atom. The prefix penta- is used with chloride because there are 5 chlorine atoms present in one molecule.

      Step 3

    • The name is phosphorous pentachloride.


    Examples4

    Examples


    Cl 2 o 3

    Cl2O3

    dichlorine trioxide


    N 2 o 3

    N2O3

    dinitrogen trioxide


    Ccl 4

    CCl4

    carbon tetrachloride


    Common and systematic names

    CO

    carbon monoxide


    Name co 2

    Name CO2

    carbon dioxide


    Name pi 3

    Name PI3

    phosphorous triiodide


    D acids derived from binary compounds

    D. Acids Derivedfrom Binary Compounds


    Common and systematic names

    • Certain binary hydrogen compounds, when dissolved in water, form solutions that have acid properties.

    • The aqueous solutions of these compounds are given acid names.

    • The acid names are in addition to their –idenames.

    • Hydrogen is typically the first element of a binary acid formula.


    Common and systematic names

    binary hydrogen compound (not an acid).

    acid

    water

    Acid Formation


    Common and systematic names

    HCl

    Pure compound

    -ide

    HCl

    Dissolved in water

    acid


    Common and systematic names

    • To name binary acids write the symbol of hydrogen first.

    • After hydrogen write the symbol of the second element.

    • Place the prefix hydro- in front of the stem of the nonmetal name.

    • Place the suffix -ic after the stem of the nonmetal name.


    Examples5

    Examples


    Common and systematic names

    Pure Compound

    HCl (g)

    hydrogen chloride


    Dissolved in water

    Dissolved in Water

    HCl (aq)

    hydrochloric acid


    Common and systematic names

    Pure Compound

    HI (g)

    hydrogen iodide


    Dissolved in water1

    Dissolved in Water

    HI (aq)

    hydroiodic acid


    Common and systematic names

    Pure Compound

    H2S (g)

    hydrogen sulfide


    Dissolved in water2

    Dissolved in Water

    H2S (aq)

    hydrosulfuric acid


    Common and systematic names

    Pure Compound

    H2Se (g)

    hydrogen selenide


    Dissolved in water3

    Dissolved in Water

    H2Se (aq)

    hydroselenic acid


    Naming compounds containing polyatomic ions

    Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions


    A polyatomic ion is an ion that contains two or more elements

    A polyatomic ion is an ion that contains two or more elements.


    Common and systematic names

    • Compounds containing polyatomic ions are composed of three or more elements.

    • They usually consist of one or more cations combined with a negative polyatomic ion.


    Common and systematic names

    • When naming a compound containing a polyatomic ion, name the cation first and then name the anion.


    Common and systematic names

    The ions are what isactually present.

    This is the way theformula is written.


    Common and systematic names

    The ions are what isactually present.

    This is the way theformula is written.


    Prefixes and suffixes elements that form more than one polyatomic ion with oxygen

    Prefixes and SuffixesElements that Form More than One Polyatomic Ion with Oxygen


    Common and systematic names

    nitrite

    nitrate

    Anions ending in -atealways contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite.


    Common and systematic names

    phosphite

    phosphate

    Anions ending in -atealways contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite.


    Common and systematic names

    sulfite

    sulfate

    Anions ending in -atealways contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite.

    -ateand –ite do not indicate the number of oxygen atoms.


    Common and systematic names

    chlorate

    perchlorate

    per- (short form of hyper) denotes anions with more oxygen than the -ate form .


    Common and systematic names

    hypochlorite

    chlorite

    hypo- denotes anions with less oxygen than the -ite form.


    Oxy anions and oxy acids of chlorine also bromine and iodine

    Oxy-Anions and Oxy-Acids of Chlorine (also Bromine and Iodine)


    Common and systematic names

    hydroxide

    cyanide

    hydrogen sulfide

    peroxide

    Four ions do not use the –ate/ite system.


    Common and systematic names

    mercury(I)

    ammonium

    hydronium

    There are three common positively charged polyatomic ions.


    Names of selected compounds that contain more than one kind of positive ion

    Names of Selected Compounds That Contain More Than One Kind of Positive Ion


    Acids

    Acids


    Common and systematic names

    The other element is usually a nonmetal, but it can be a metal.

    Its first element is hydrogen.

    Its remainingelements include oxygen and form a polyatomic ion.

    Oxy-acids contain hydrogen, oxygen and one other element.


    Common and systematic names

    Hydrogen in an oxy-acid is not expressed in the acid name.

    The word acid in the name indicates the presence of hydrogen.


    Common and systematic names

    indicates hydrogen

    contains hydrogen

    contains sulfur

    contains oxygen

    sulfuric acid


    Common and systematic names

    phosphite

    phosphate

    Anions ending in -atealways contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite.


    Naming the acid based on the name of the polyatomic ion

    Naming the Acid Based on the Name of the Polyatomic Ion

    Ending of Polyatomic Ion

    Ending of Acid

    ite

    ous

    less oxygen

    ate

    ic

    more oxygen


    Examples6

    Examples


    Common and systematic names

    sulfite

    sulfurous acid


    Common and systematic names

    sulfate

    sulfuric acid


    Common and systematic names

    nitrite

    nitrous acid


    Common and systematic names

    nitrate

    nitric acid


    Common and systematic names

    The End


  • Login