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Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds Chapter 6. Larry Emme Chemeketa Community College. Common and Systematic Names.

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Nomenclature of

Inorganic Compounds

Chapter 6

Larry Emme

Chemeketa Community College



Chemical nomenclature is the system of names that chemists use to identify compounds. Two classes of names exist: common names and systematic names.


  • They are not based on the composition of the compound.

  • They are based on an outstanding chemical or physical property.

  • Chemists prefer systematic names.

    • Systematic names precisely identify the chemical composition of the compound.

    • The present system of inorganic chemical nomenclature was devised by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).


  • Elements and ions
    Elements and Ions use to identify compounds. Two classes of names exist: common names and systematic names.


    The formula for most elements is the symbol of the element

    The formula for most elements use to identify compounds. Two classes of names exist: common names and systematic names. is the symbol of the element.

    Sodium Na

    Potassium K

    Zinc Zn

    Argon Ar

    Mercury Hg

    Lead Pb

    Calcium Ca


    These 7 elements are found use to identify compounds. Two classes of names exist: common names and systematic names.in nature as diatomic molecules.

    Hydrogen H2

    Nitrogen N2

    Oxygen O2

    Fluorine F2

    Chlorine Cl2

    Bromine Br2

    Iodine I2


    Ions use to identify compounds. Two classes of names exist: common names and systematic names.


    A charged particle known as an ion can be produced by adding or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    If one or more electrons are removed from a neutral atom a positive ion is formed. A positive ion is called a cation.

    remove e-

    neutral atom


    Positive Ion Formation: or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.Loss of Electrons From a Neutral Atom

    • Na  Na+ +e-

    • Ca  Ca2+ +2e-

    • Al  Al3+ +3e-


    Naming cations
    Naming Cations or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.


    Cations are named the same as their parent atoms

    Cations are named the same or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom. as their parent atoms


    Atom cation name of cation

    sodium (Na) or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    Na+

    sodium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Atom cation name of cation1

    calcium (Ca) or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    Ca2+

    calcium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Atom cation name of cation2

    lithium (Li) or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    Li+

    lithium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Atom cation name of cation3

    magnesium (Mg) or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    Mg2+

    magnesium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    Atom cation name of cation4

    strontium (Sr) or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    Sr2+

    strontium ion

    AtomCationName of Cation


    A charged particle known as an ion can be produced by adding or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.

    If one or more electrons are added to a neutral atom a negative ion is formed. A negative ion is called an anion.

    add e-

    neutral atom


    Naming anions
    Naming Anions or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom.


    An anion consisting of one element has the stem of the parent element and an ide ending

    An anion consisting of one element has the stem of the parent element and an –ideending


    Atom anion name of anion

    fluorine (F) parent element and an

    F-

    stem

    fluoride ion

    AtomAnionName of Anion


    Atom anion name of anion1

    chlorine (Cl) parent element and an

    Cl-

    stem

    chloride ion

    AtomAnionName of Anion


    Atom anion name of anion2

    stem parent element and an

    AtomAnionName of Anion

    bromine (Br)

    Br-

    bromide ion


    Atom anion name of anion3

    stem parent element and an

    AtomAnionName of Anion

    nitrogen (N)

    N3-

    nitride ion


    Atom anion name of anion4

    stem parent element and an

    AtomAnionName of Anion

    phosphorous (P)

    P3-

    phosphide ion


    Atom anion name of anion5

    stem parent element and an

    AtomAnionName of Anion

    oxygen (O)

    O2-

    oxide ion


    Binary compounds
    Binary Compounds parent element and an


    Binary compounds contain only two different elements

    Binary compounds contain only parent element and an two different elements.




    Type i cations include
    Type I Cations include: One Type of Cation (one charge)

    • the Group A metals

    • Hydrogen

    • B metals with one charge: Zn+2, Cd+2, Ag+

    • The polyatomic ion NH4+


    • Using this system the number of atoms of each element present is not expressed in the name.


    Name of Metal followed by the name of the nonmetal which has been modified to an identifying stem plus the suffix

    + Stem of Nonmetal

    plus -ide ending


    (ur) followed by the name of the nonmetal which has been modified to an identifying stem plus the suffix



    Name the compound caf 2
    Name the Compound CaF as if it were a group IA metal.2

    Step 1 From the formula it is a two-element compound and follows the rules for binary compounds.


    Name the compound caf 21
    Name the Compound CaF as if it were a group IA metal.2

    Step 2 The compound is composed of Ca, a metal and F, a nonmetal. Ca forms only a +2 cation. Thus, call the positive part of the compound calcium.


    Name the compound caf 22
    Name the Compound CaF as if it were a group IA metal.2

    Step 3 Modify the name of the second element to the stem fluor- and add the binary ending –ideto form the name of the negative part, fluoride.


    Name the compound caf 23
    Name the Compound CaF as if it were a group IA metal.2

    Step 4 The name of the compound is therefore calcium fluoride.


    Examples
    Examples as if it were a group IA metal.


    Compound name

    name of metal as if it were a group IA metal.

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    NaCl

    sodiumchloride


    Compound name1

    name of metal as if it were a group IA metal.

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    HCl(g)

    hydrogenchloride

    For naming purposes only, hydrogen is treated as if it were a group IA metal.


    Compound name2

    name of metal as if it were a group IA metal.

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    MgCl2

    magnesiumchloride


    Compound name3

    name of metal as if it were a group IA metal.

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    K2O

    potassiumoxide


    Compound name4

    name of metal as if it were a group IA metal.

    nonmetal stem

    CompoundName

    Na3P

    sodiumphosphide


    B. Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal as if it were a group IA metal.That Can Form Two or More Types of Cations (two or more charges)


    Type ii cations include
    Type II Cations include: as if it were a group IA metal.

    • B metals with two charges

    • Zn+2, Cd+2, Ag+ are excluded


    Name the compound fes
    Name the Compound FeS as if it were a group IA metal.

    Step 1 This compound follows the rules for a binary compound.


    Name the compound fes1
    Name the Compound FeS as if it were a group IA metal.

    Step 2 In sulfides, the charge on S is –2. Therefore the charge on Fe must be +2, and the name of the positive part of the compound is iron (II).(or ferrous)

    Step 2 It is a compound of Fe, a metal, and S, a nonmetal, and Fe is a transition metal that has more than one type of cation.


    Name the compound fes2
    Name the Compound FeS as if it were a group IA metal.

    Step 3 We have already determined that the name of the negative part of the compound will be sulfide.


    Name the compound fes3
    Name the Compound FeS as if it were a group IA metal.

    Step 4 The name of FeS is iron(II) sulfide.(orferrous sulfide)


    The iupac stock system
    The IUPAC (Stock) as if it were a group IA metal.System


    The metals in the center of the periodic table (including the transition metals) often form more than one type of cation.



    In the IUPAC System the charge on the cation is designated by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    IUPAC devised the Stock System of nomenclature to name compounds of metals that have more than one type of cation.

    The nonmetal name ends in -ide.


    Stock System by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.Lower Charge Higher ChargeElementFormulaNameFormulaName

    IUPAC SystemHigher ChargeElementFormulaNameFormulaName

    Lower Charge

    Copper Cu+ copper(I) Cu2+ copper(II)

    Iron Fe2+ iron(II) Fe3+ iron(III)

    Lead Pb2+ lead(II) Pb4+ lead(IV)

    Mercury Hg22+ mercury(I) Hg2+ mercury(II)

    Tin Sn2+ tin(II) Sn4+ tin(IV)


    Examples1
    Examples by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.


    +2 by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    -1

    iron(II)

    chloride

    +3

    -1

    iron(III)

    chloride

    iron(II) chloride

    FeCl2

    compound name

    ion charge

    ion name

    iron(III) chloride

    FeCl3


    +2 by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    -1

    tin(II)

    bromide

    +4

    -1

    tin(IV)

    bromide

    tin(II) bromide

    SnBr2

    compound name

    ion charge

    ion name

    tin(IV) bromide

    SnBr4


    The classical system
    The Classical System by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.


    In the Classical System by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.the name of the metal (usually the Latin name) is modified with the suffixes -ous and ic.


    Metal name ends in by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    -ouslower charge

    -ichigher charge

    nonmetal name ends in

    -ide


    Examples2
    Examples by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.


    +2 by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    -1

    ferrous

    chloride

    +3

    -1

    ferric

    chloride

    ferrous chloride

    FeCl2

    ion charge

    ion name

    compound name

    ferric chloride

    FeCl3


    +2 by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    -1

    stannous

    bromide

    +4

    -1

    stannic

    bromide

    stannous bromide

    SnBr2

    compound name

    ion charge

    ion name

    stannic bromide

    SnBr4


    Ion Names: Classical System by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    Lower Charge Higher Charge


    Binary compounds containing two nonmetals
    Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.


    Compounds between nonmetals are molecular not ionic

    Compounds between nonmetals are molecular, not ionic. by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.


    Si by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.

    B

    P

    H

    C

    S

    I

    Br

    N

    Cl

    O

    F

    In a compound formed between two nonmetals, the element that occurs first in this series is named first.


    Prefixes
    Prefixes by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal.


    A Greek prefix is placed before the name of each element to indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.


    di indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.= 2

    tri = 3

    tetra = 4

    penta = 5

    hexa = 6

    hepta = 7

    octa = 8

    nona = 9

    deca = 10

    Mono is rarely used when naming the first element.

    • mono = 1


    Examples3
    Examples indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.


    indicates two indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.nitrogen atoms

    indicates threeoxygen atoms

    dinitrogen trioxide

    N2O3


    indicates one indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.phosphorous atom

    indicates fivechlorine atoms

    phosphorous pentachloride

    PCl5


    indicates two indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.chlorine atoms

    indicates sevenoxygen atoms

    dichlorine heptaoxide

    Cl2O7


    Determine the Name of PCl indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.5

    Step 1

    • There are 2 elements present.

    • The compound is binary.

    • Phosphorous and chlorine are nonmetals so the rules for naming binary compounds of 2 nonmetals apply.

    • Phosphorous is named first. Therefore the compound is a chloride.


    Determine the Name of PCl indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.5

    Step 2

    • No prefix is needed for phosphorous because each molecule of PCl5 has only one phosphorous atom. The prefix penta- is used with chloride because there are 5 chlorine atoms present in one molecule.

      Step 3

    • The name is phosphorous pentachloride.


    Examples4
    Examples indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.


    Cl 2 o 3
    Cl indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.2O3

    dichlorine trioxide


    N 2 o 3
    N indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.2O3

    dinitrogen trioxide


    Ccl 4
    CCl indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.4

    carbon tetrachloride


    CO indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.

    carbon monoxide


    Name co 2
    Name CO indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.2

    carbon dioxide


    Name pi 3
    Name PI indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.3

    phosphorous triiodide


    D acids derived from binary compounds
    D. Acids Derived indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.from Binary Compounds


    • The aqueous solutions of these compounds are given acid names.

    • The acid names are in addition to their –idenames.

    • Hydrogen is typically the first element of a binary acid formula.


    binary hydrogen compound (not an acid). form solutions that have acid properties.

    acid

    water

    Acid Formation


    HCl form solutions that have acid properties.

    Pure compound

    -ide

    HCl

    Dissolved in water

    acid


    • After hydrogen write the symbol of the second element.

    • Place the prefix hydro- in front of the stem of the nonmetal name.

    • Place the suffix -ic after the stem of the nonmetal name.


    Examples5
    Examples form solutions that have acid properties.


    Pure Compound form solutions that have acid properties.

    HCl (g)

    hydrogen chloride


    Dissolved in water
    Dissolved in Water form solutions that have acid properties.

    HCl (aq)

    hydrochloric acid


    Pure Compound form solutions that have acid properties.

    HI (g)

    hydrogen iodide


    Dissolved in water1
    Dissolved in Water form solutions that have acid properties.

    HI (aq)

    hydroiodic acid


    Pure Compound form solutions that have acid properties.

    H2S (g)

    hydrogen sulfide


    Dissolved in water2
    Dissolved in Water form solutions that have acid properties.

    H2S (aq)

    hydrosulfuric acid


    Pure Compound form solutions that have acid properties.

    H2Se (g)

    hydrogen selenide


    Dissolved in water3
    Dissolved in Water form solutions that have acid properties.

    H2Se (aq)

    hydroselenic acid


    Naming compounds containing polyatomic ions
    Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions form solutions that have acid properties.


    A polyatomic ion is an ion that contains two or more elements

    A polyatomic ion is an ion that form solutions that have acid properties. contains two or more elements.


    • They usually consist of one or more cations combined with a negative polyatomic ion.



    The ions are what is cation first and then name the anion.actually present.

    This is the way theformula is written.


    The ions are what is cation first and then name the anion.actually present.

    This is the way theformula is written.


    Prefixes and suffixes elements that form more than one polyatomic ion with oxygen
    Prefixes and Suffixes cation first and then name the anion.Elements that Form More than One Polyatomic Ion with Oxygen


    nitrite cation first and then name the anion.

    nitrate

    Anions ending in -atealways contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite.


    phosphite cation first and then name the anion.

    phosphate

    Anions ending in -atealways contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite.


    sulfite cation first and then name the anion.

    sulfate

    Anions ending in -atealways contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite.

    -ateand –ite do not indicate the number of oxygen atoms.


    chlorate cation first and then name the anion.

    perchlorate

    per- (short form of hyper) denotes anions with more oxygen than the -ate form .


    hypochlorite cation first and then name the anion.

    chlorite

    hypo- denotes anions with less oxygen than the -ite form.


    Oxy anions and oxy acids of chlorine also bromine and iodine
    Oxy-Anions and Oxy-Acids of cation first and then name the anion.Chlorine (also Bromine and Iodine)


    hydroxide cation first and then name the anion.

    cyanide

    hydrogen sulfide

    peroxide

    Four ions do not use the –ate/ite system.


    mercury(I) cation first and then name the anion.

    ammonium

    hydronium

    There are three common positively charged polyatomic ions.



    Acids
    Acids of Positive Ion


    The other element is usually a nonmetal, but it can be a metal.

    Its first element is hydrogen.

    Its remainingelements include oxygen and form a polyatomic ion.

    Oxy-acids contain hydrogen, oxygen and one other element.


    Hydrogen in an metal.oxy-acid is not expressed in the acid name.

    The word acid in the name indicates the presence of hydrogen.


    indicates hydrogen metal.

    contains hydrogen

    contains sulfur

    contains oxygen

    sulfuric acid


    phosphite metal.

    phosphate

    Anions ending in -atealways contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite.


    Naming the acid based on the name of the polyatomic ion
    Naming the Acid Based metal.on the Name of the Polyatomic Ion

    Ending of Polyatomic Ion

    Ending of Acid

    ite

    ous

    less oxygen

    ate

    ic

    more oxygen


    Examples6
    Examples metal.


    sulf metal.ite

    sulfurous acid


    sulf metal.ate

    sulfuric acid


    nitr metal.ite

    nitrous acid


    nitr metal.ate

    nitric acid


    The End metal.


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