Child Labor in the U.S. and Britain during the Industrial Revolution Parallels and Contrasts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Child Labor in the U.S. and Britain during the Industrial Revolution Parallels and Contrasts. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, child labor was used throughout the world, particularly in industrializing countries.

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Child Labor in the U.S. and Britain during the Industrial Revolution Parallels and Contrasts

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Child labor in the u s and britain during the industrial revolution parallels and contrasts l.jpg

Child Labor in the U.S. and Britain during the Industrial Revolution

Parallels and Contrasts


Slide2 l.jpg

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, child labor was used throughout the world, particularly in industrializing countries.

  • Britain was the first country to be industrialized. Child labor there was primarily used in the textile industry.

  • The U.S. borrowed many ideas from the British during the Industrial Revolution.


In britain the first rural textile mills were built and children were a major part of the workforce l.jpg

Britain

1769

1816

1833

1878

2009

USA

1793

1832

1837

1843

1892

1904

1916

1937

2009

In Britain, the first rural textile mills were built, and children were a major part of the workforce.

http://www.michellehenry.fr/childlabour.jpg

Manchester and Lancashire were the first towns to establish a factory system.


In the u s samuel slater opened the first mill in pawtucket ri l.jpg

Britain

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USA

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In the U.S., Samuel Slater opened the first mill in Pawtucket, RI

www.ou.edu/.../ Old%20slater%20mill.jpg

Samuel Slater, a British immigrant, is considered the “Father of American Industrial Revolution,” because he built the first water powered textile mill in the U.S.. He modeled his factory system on the British system.


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Britain

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1816

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USA

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In Britain, 51.2% of children

under the age of eighteen worked

in the textile mills and 20% of

children under the age of thirteen.

Photographed by Lewis Hine: http://www.galenet.com/servlet/SRC/


Slide6 l.jpg

Britain

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1816

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USA

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In the U.S., in 1830, 55 % of mill

workers in Rhode Island

were children.

http://cache.virtualtourist.com/1778376-mill_town_on_the_river-Lowell.jpg

The Lowell mills employed mostly young women with an average age of fifteen to eighteen.


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Britain

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USA

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In the U.S., people started to

question child labor, but laws

were not established until

much later.

4.bp.blogspot.com/.../ Child+Labor+Coal+Mines.jpg


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Britain

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USA

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In Britain:

Until the Factory Act of 1833, the factory owners decided how long the children had to work.

The Act prohibited the employment of children under nine in all textile mills powered by steam and water.

3.It also limited the working hours to nine hours per day and mandated schooling.

“Parliament passed five Labour Laws between 1802 and 1833, but was shrewd enough not to vote a penny for their carrying out. . .”

(Karl Marx)


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Britain

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USA

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In the U.S., the first state child

labor law was established in

Massachusetts.

Photographed by Lewis Hine:

http://www.archives.gov/press/press-kits/picturing-the-century-photos/sweeper-and-doffer-in-cotton-mill.jpg

Children in Massachusetts under the age of fifteen had to attend school for three months.


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Britain

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USA

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In the U.S., states began

limiting children to a ten-

hour workday. . .

. . . but the laws were not always enforced!


Slide11 l.jpg

Britain

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USA

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The British Factory Acts

were applied to all trades.

The Acts prohibited the employment of children under ten,

and children aged ten to fourteen could only be employed

half days.


Slide12 l.jpg

Britain

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In the U.S., the American

Federation of Labor recommended

banning factory employment for

children under fifteen years of age

but not banning it altogether. The

AFL also recommended a law limiting

women and children to a maximum

eight-hour workday.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AFL-CIO.png


Slide13 l.jpg

Britain

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In the U.S. the National Labor

Law Committee forms, and

child labor law reform

begins.

Photographed by Lewis Hine:

www.ymca.org.au/ about/Pages/History.aspx

Child working as a spinner.


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Britain

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In the U.S., a new federal

child labor law sets a

minimum age for

employment . . .

Photograph by Lewis Hine:

online-history.org/ Wc2.htm

. . . but it was declared

unconstitutional after just two years.


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Britain

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USA

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Opinions of Child Labor

In the U.S., minimum

ages of employment and

hours for children

laborers are regulated by

federal law.


Factory conditions for children in britain and the u s in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries l.jpg

Factory Conditions for Children in Britain and the U.S. in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

  • Factory owners preferred using children for some tasks because of their small size.

  • It was more profitable for factory owners to employ children than skilled adults. British factory owners profited by purchasing orphans who worked for very low wages.

  • Lack of sleep and an averaged eighteen-hour work day in Britain and in the U.S. contributed to mistakes and injuries.

  • Some children in Britain and in the U.S. were mentally and physically abused by their supervisors, and their safety was neglected by factory owners who cared more about profit than well-being.


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Britain

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USA

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Child labor still exists today.

http://thisteensweightlossplan.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/drive-thru1231521992.jpg

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/08/15/timestopics/2child-labor_395.jpg

Do you know any children who work?

Do you think there is any difference between child labor today and during the Industrial Revolution?


Slide18 l.jpg

Works Cited

Cruickshank, Marjorie. Children and Industry. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1981.

Marx, Karl. Das Kapital. Vol. I. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company, 1909.

Nardinelli, Clark. Child Labor and the Industrial Revolution. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

---."Were Children Exploited During the Industrial Revolution?" Research in Economic History 2 (1988): 243-276.

Rule, John. The Experience of Labour in Eighteenth Century English Industry. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981.

Tuttle, Carolyn. "A Revival of the Pessimist View: Child Labor and the IndustrialRevolution." Research in Economic History 18 (1998): 53-82.


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