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Chapter 10. Aerobic Exercise Prescriptions for Public Health, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Athletics. Key Concepts. anaerobic threshold controlled frequency breathing (CFB) cooling-down detraining drafting duration economy of movement fartlek training. frequency high risk

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Chapter 10 l.jpg

Chapter 10

Aerobic Exercise Prescriptions for Public Health, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Athletics



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anaerobic threshold

controlled frequency breathing (CFB)

cooling-down

detraining

drafting

duration

economy of movement

fartlek training

  • frequency

  • high risk

  • hypercarpic training

  • hypoxic training

  • intensity

  • interval training

  • long slow distance (LSD) training

  • low risk


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maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2 max)

maximum heart rate reserve

metabollic equivalents (METs)

mode

moderate risk

  • rating of perceived exertion (RPE)

  • repetition training (REP)

  • target heart rate range

  • tempo-pace training

  • ventilatory threshold

  • VO2 reserve

  • warming-up



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A 25-year-old man with a heart murmur

A 30-year-old woman with three risk factors

A 45-year-old man

A 20-year-old woman who smokes

High risk

Moderate risk

Moderate risk

Low risk

How would you categorize the health risk for beginning an aerobic exercise program for the following individuals?


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What physiological changes occur during a warm-up?

  • Muscles relax and contract faster

  • Increased temperature decreases viscous resistance in muscles and improves efficiency

  • Hemoglobin and myoglobin give up more oxygen and dissociate more rapidly

  • The rates of metabolic processes increase with temperature

  • Warm-up provides more time for aerobic metabolism to supply the energy needs of the activity and so may reduce lactate accumulation during actual exercise

  • Vascular resistance decreases with increasing temperature.

  • Total pulmonary resistance to blood flow decreases with increasing temperature


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What are four reasons why warming up before exercise is important?

  • Provides more time for aerobic metabolism to supply the energy needs of the activity and so may reduce lactate accumulation during actual exercise

  • Reduces the risk of musculoskeletal injuries and improves heart function

  • Increases blood flow to muscles and the temperature of tendons and ligaments, decreasing the risk of muscle pulls and tears as well as damage to connective tissues

  • Gradually increases blood flow to the heart, avoiding the electrical abnormalities that can result from sudden vigorous activity


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What constitutes an important?effective warm-up?

Ideally the warm-up should involve low- to

moderate-intensity exercise that mimics the

physical activity to follow.


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What are three benefits of cooling down with low- to moderate-intensity activity?

  • Helps to clear lactate from the blood more rapidly than an inactive cool-down

  • Prevents blood pooling in the lower extremities, which can cause dizziness

  • Helps maintain increased muscle and connective tissue temperature, increasing flexibility


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According to CDC-ACSM recommendations, how much time should adults spend exercising to gain health-related benefits?

Adults should accumulate 30 minutes or more

of moderate-intensity activity on most,

preferably all, days of the week.


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Which is better: a single continuous exercise session each day or multiple shorter bouts of physical activity?

Either way is fine as long as you accumulate 30

minutes of moderate-intensity exercise

expending 150-200 kilocalories per day.


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The ACSM considers four components for designing aerobic exercise programs for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. What are they?

  • Mode of activity

  • Intensity of training

  • Duration of training

  • Frequency of training


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What are the ACSM’s recommendations regarding mode of activity for developing and maintaining fitness?

  • Uses large muscle groups

  • Can be maintained continuously

  • Is rhythmical

  • Is aerobic


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What are the two methods for estimating a target heart rate range?

  • Percentage of maximum heart rate

  • Percentage of maximum heart rate reserve


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What is the recommended target heart range in terms of percentage of maximum heart rate?

  • 55 to 90% of maximum heart rate, depending on the person’s fitness level

    How is it calculated?

  • 220 – age in years = maximum heart rate


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What is the recommended target heart rate range in terms of percentage of maximum heart rate reserve?

  • 40 to 85% of the maximum heart rate reserve

    How is it calculated?

  • 220 – age in years = maximum heart rate

  • Maximum heart rate – resting heart rate = maximum heart rate reserve


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What two advantages does the percentage of heart rate reserve method have over the percentage of maximum heart rate method?

  • The percentage of heart rate reserve method more closely tracks the relationship between VO2 reserve and exercise intensity.

  • It takes into account training-induced changes in the resting heart rate.


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What is the recommended VO reserve method have over the percentage of maximum heart rate method?2 range for improving cardiorespiratory fitness?

  • 40 to 85% of maximum VO2 reserve

    How is it calculated?

  • VO2max - VO2resting = maximum VO2 reserve


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What is the recommended METs reserve method have over the percentage of maximum heart rate method?range for improving cardiorespiratory fitness?

  • 20 to 30 years:

    • 4.8 to 10.1 METs

  • 40 to 64 years:

    • 4.0 to 8.4 METs


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What is the recommended RPE reserve method have over the percentage of maximum heart rate method?range for improving cardiorespiratory fitness?

12 to 16 (somewhat hard to hard)


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What is the advantage and disadvantage of using RPE to determine exercise intensity?

  • Advantage:

    • Method is simple

  • Disadvantage:

    • It’s subjective


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What is the total daily duration of exercise necessary to improve cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults?

20 – 60 minutes


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How frequently should a person train to improve cardiorespiratory fitness?

3 to 5 days a week


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How quickly can cardiorespiratory fitness?detraining affect fitness?

In as little as two weeks


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What three physiological factors determine performance in endurance events?

  • Maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2 max)

  • The fraction of VO2 max that can be maintained

  • Economy of movement


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Name some factors that influence endurance events?economy of movement.

  • Age

  • Muscle fiber type

  • Altitude

  • Gender

  • Fatigue

  • Temperature

  • Wind

  • Acceleration–deceleration versus smooth movement

  • Pace and efficiency

  • Velocity of running, walking, and cycling


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What key points should you keep in mind when designing training programs for endurance athletes?

  • Coach and athlete must set goals and then determine the best training regimen based on those goals

  • Consider the athlete’s strengths and weaknesses when developing the program

  • Place early season emphasis on weaknesses and late season emphasis on strengths


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What are three key elements of an effective training program?

  • Efficient long-range planning

  • Wise use of rest and recovery days

  • Gradual increases in training intensity and duration


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Useful Websites program?


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Physical Activity and Health Executive Summary program?

www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/sgr.htm

Physical Activity and Fitness: Healthy People 2010

www.health.gov/healthypeople/default.htm

Sports Coach—VO2 max

www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/vo2max.htm

Anaerobic Threshold

www.rice.edu/~jenky/sports/anaerobic.threshold.html

Gatorade Sports Science Institute

www.gssiweb.com


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