alcohols

alcohols PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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?? ???? alkene or alkyne ???? ??? e ? ??????? ? ol? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? OH ??? ?????. Examples . Common names???? ??? alkyl??????? ? OH ?? ???? ???? alcohol . Examples. Carbinol method????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? CH3OH ???? ? Carbinol ? ???? alcohols ??????? ??? ???? ????? alkyl ????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? CH3 ?? ???? ???? Carbinol Examples.

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1. Alcohols Nomenclature of alcohols: IUPAC system ???? ??? alkane? ???? ??? ??? e ? ??????? ? ol ? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? OH ??? ?????

2. ?? ???? alkene or alkyne ???? ??? e ? ??????? ? ol ? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? OH ??? ?????

3. Common names ???? ??? alkyl??????? ? OH ?? ???? ???? alcohol

4. Carbinol method ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? CH3OH ???? ? Carbinol ? ???? alcohols ??????? ??? ???? ????? alkyl ????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? CH3 ?? ???? ???? Carbinol Examples

6. Classification of alcohols According to number of OH groups Monohydroxy alcohols: which contain one OH group e.g. ethanol Dihydroxy alcohols: which contain two OH group e.g. ethyleneglycol. Polyhydroxy alcohols: which contain more than two OH groups e.g. glycerol and carbohydrate.

7. According to number of OH groups Monohydroxy alcohols are classified according to type of carbon bearing OH into three types: 1ry alcohols: in which OH attach with 1ry carbon e.g. RCH2OH 2nd alcohols: in which OH attach with 2nd carbon e.g. R2­CHOH t-alcohols : in which OH attach with tertiary carbon e.g. R3COH

8. Preparation of alcohols a) Preparation of 1ry alcohol1. 1- Hydrolysis of alkene

9. E.g. conversion of benzene to benzyl alcohol

10. NaBH4 reduce C=O and not reduce C=C e.g. CH3CH=CH-CHO + NaBH4 CH3CH=CH-CH2­OH Crotonaldehyde 2-Butenol

12. b) Preparation of secondary alcohols Secondary alcohols are prepared from Grignard reagent and aldehyde other than formaldehyde.

13. c) Preparation of tertiary alcohols Tertiary alcohols are prepared from Grignard reagent and ketones.

14. Grignard reagent is used to synthesis many organic compounds e.g. Reactions of alcohols 1)Replacement of OH by halogen a) By reaction with HX ROH + HX RX + H2O X= I, Br and Cl e.g. CH3CH2OH + HBr CH3CH2Br +HOH

15. Dehydration of alcohols See alkene Formation of esters e.g. CH3CH2OH + CH3COOH CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2O

16. Examples of oxidizing agent are K2Cr2O7/ H2SO4, KMnO4 and Cu/250oC b)2nd alcohol oxidize to give ketone

17. Examples of iodoform equations

18. Mechanism of iodoform (a) For alcohols

19. (b) For aldehyde and ketones Only one aldehyde can give iodoform, this aldehyde is acetaldehyde, the mechanism of aldehyde and ketones are step 2, and 3 in alcohol. E.g. acetone

20. Ethers Nomenclature of ethers IUPAC nomenclature ???? RO ? Alkoxy ? ??? ??????? ??????? RO ??? ?? ????? ??????? E.g. CH3O- CH3CH2O- CH3CH2CH2CH2O- Methoxy Ethoxy Butoxy Examples of ethers

21. Comman Nomenclature ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ???? ether Examples CH3CH2OCH2CH3 C6H5OCH3 (CH3) 3 C-OCH2CH3 Diethyl ether methyl phenyl ether t-Butyl ethyl ether (Anisole)

22. Preparation of ethers From alcohols Wiliamson synthesis It is reaction between alkoside and alkyl halide E.g. preparation of diethyl ether

23. Question Show how could you prepare the following ethers: (a) Anisole (phenyl methyl ether) (b) t- butyl ethyl et Answer

24. Observation: Alkyl halide must be primary or secondary because t-alkyl halide undergoes loss of HCl (elimination) so it gives alkene not ether e.g.

25. Reaction of ethers Reaction with acid halide

26. ???? Cyclic ethers ? alkene oxide ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ? ????? ? epoxy ? ????? ? alkane

27. Preparation of cyclic ethers

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