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Early Child Development – Canadian Experience The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis and The McKnight Foundation in Cooperation with University of Minnesota By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President, CIAR October 17, 2003 03-073 CIAR The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research 03-076

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early child development canadian experience
Early Child Development – Canadian Experience

The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis

and

The McKnight Foundation in Cooperation with

University of Minnesota

By J. Fraser Mustard

Founding President, CIAR

October 17, 2003

03 073
03-073

CIAR

The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

03 076
03-076

CIAR - Programs

Population Health

Human Development

03 077
03-077

Why Are Some People Healthy

And Others Not?

Developmental Health and

the Wealth of Nations

03 063
03-063

HEALTH

00 063
00-063

Historical

Industrial Revolution and Population

Health in the West

Tom McKeown

- 25% public health

- 75% better nutrition

Robert Fogel

- Major factor better nutrition of children

- Early childhood set risks for chronic diseases of adults

- Better quality of population improved economic growth

01 024
01-024

Economic Development and Health

Holland 1850 - 1910

170

1.8

168

Income/Capita

1.4

Height

166

Height (cm)

Income/Capita

Deaths/1,000 Population

Relative Index 1850=1

1

164

Deaths/1,000

0.6

162

Population

160

0.2

1850

1870

1890

1910

Year

92 050
92-050

Mortality by Social Class

Class

180

V

140

Standard Mortality Ratios

IV

III

100

II

I

60

1951

1981

1971

Marmot in “Class and Health” 1986

91 068
91-068

U.K. CIVIL SERVICE

Mortality - All Causes

Other

16

Clerical

12

Professional/

8

Executive

Cumulative Mortality

4

Administrative

0

0

2

4

8

6

10

Year of Follow-up

90 068
90-068

Job Control and Coronary Heart Disease

20.0

10.4

4.5

2.8

12.8

6.6

2.0

4.0

HIGH

6.8

4.4

0.0

3.2

Job Demand

HIGH

LOW

Job Control

LOW

R. Karasek and T. Theorell, Healthy Work: Stress Productivity and

the Reconstruction of Working Life, 1990.

03 094
03-094

Age Adjusted Odds Ratios

CHD - Whitehall Study

Civil Service Grade

HIGH

LOW

Non-Adjusted

1.00

1.50

Adjusted

Work

1.00

1.18

Risk Factors

1.00

1.30

Fully

1.00

0.95

Marmot, BMJ, 1997

00 076
00-076

Life Cycle and Health

In Utero - Barker et al

Early Years - Power and Hertzman

Adult Life - Marmot et al

Biological embedding in the early years

00 069
00-069

Health Problems Related

to Early Life

Coronary Heart Disease

Non

-

insulin Dependent Diabetes

Obesity

Blood Pressure

Aging and Memory Loss

Mental Health (depression)

01 010
01-010

"Follow up through life of successive

samples of birth has pointed to the

crucial influence of early life on

subsequent mental and physical health

and development."

Acheson, Donald -

Independent Inquiry into

Inequalities in Health

,1998

03 131
03-131

NEUROSCIENCE

00 078
00-078

Brain Plasticity in Early Years

1. Hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis

- regulation of cortisol

memory, diabetes, heart disease, behaviour

2. Autonomic nervous system

blood pressure, respiration

3. Sensing pathways

vision, sound, touch etc.

03 078
03-078

Experience and Brain Development

Stimuli switch on genetic pathways

- Differentiate neuron function

Stimuli affect the formation of

the connections (synapses)

among the billions of neurons

03 079
03-079

Vision - Hubel & Wiesel

Eye cataracts at birth prevent

development of vision neurons

in the occipital cortex

03 089
03-089

5-HTT Gene and Depression

Age 26

Depression Risk

.70

SS

S = Short Allele L = Long Allele

.50

SL

LL

.30

No Abuse

Moderate Abuse

Severe Abuse

Early Childhood

A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.

03 110
03-110

Interaction of the Brain and Immune System

CRF

Hypothalamus

Cortisol

CRF

Locus Ceruleus

Adrenal Gland

ACTH

Pituitary

Gland

Vagus

Cortisol

Cytokines

Sympathetic

Nervous system

Immune Cells

Nerve

Immune Organs

03 065
03-065

BEHAVIOUR

01 009
01-009

"The origin of these behavior problems can be

traced back to fetal development and infancy.

High quality care-giving support … during the

first three years … reduces … the seriousness

of behavior problems."

. - Developmental Health and the

Tremblay, R

Wealth of Nations, 1999

02 011
02-011

"The aftermath … can appear as

depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts or

post-traumatic stress - or as aggression,

impulsiveness, delinquency, hyperactivity

or substance abuse."

Martin Teicher

Scientific American, 2002

02 041
02-041

Substance Abuse and Childhood Abuse

Odds Ratios for Drug

and Alcohol Use

Exposure to

Drugs

Alcohol

Child Abuse

*

0 1.0 1.0

1 2.7 2.0

2 2.9 4.0

3 3.6 4.9

4+ 4.7 7.4

Scale: 0 none

*

4 intense

03 064
03-064

LEARNING

02 036
02-036

Intervention Studies

Grantham-McGregor

Abecedarian

Ypsilanti

Osborn and Milbank

Bergmann - France

Other (World Bank Report)

Compatible with biological and animal studies

03 086
03-086

1970 British Birth Cohort

Preschooling improved performance

in school system

Benefits children in all social classes

The effects of preschooling persist

Egerton and Bynner (2001)

99 113
99-113

REVERSING THE REAL BRAIN DRAIN

Early Years Study

Final Report

April 1999

Co-chairs: Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain & J. Fraser Mustard

03 018
03-018

Vulnerable Children Aged 4 to 6 –

NLSCY 1998

40

30

Ontario

Prevalence of Vulnerable Children

20

Rest of Canada

10

0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Socioeconomic Status

01 053
01-053

Odds - Ratio for Children\'s (0-5)

Cognitive and Behaviour Problems

Behaviour

Cognitive

Parenting (vs good)

Authoritarian

1.53

2.01

Permissive

1.23

1.80

Inadequate

1.85

2.14

Parents Read to Child

0.92

0.96

Local Support

0.93

1.00

99 004
99-004

Source of Brain Stimulation

parent-oriented

child-oriented

age

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Components of Early Childhood Development and

Parenting Centres:

ECD & care (parental and non-parental) arrangements

Play-based learning

Resources

Prenatal & postnatal supports

Nutrition programs

03 115
03-115

LITERACY

02 001
02-001

Vocabulary Growth – First 3 Years

Vocabulary

1200

High SES

Middle SES

600

Low SES

0

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

Age - Months

B. Hart & T. Risley, Meaningful Differences in Everyday

Experiences of Young American Children, 1995

01 040
01-040

Five Levels of Literacy

Level 1:

indicates persons with very poor skills.

Level 2:

people can deal with material that

is simple

Level 3:

is considered a suitable minimum for

coping with the demands of everyday life

Level 4

and 5:

describe people who demonstrate

command of higher-order

processing skills

02 061
02-061

Document Literacy

1994 – 1998, Ages 16 to 55

Level 1 and 2 Level 4 and 5

Sweden

23%

34%

Canada

42%

23%

Australia

43%

17%

United States

48%

18%

Chile

85%

3%

00 085
00-085

Socioeconomic

Mean scores

350

Gradients for

Document

330

Literacy Scores

310

290

International

Mean

270

Sweden

250

230

Netherlands

210

Canada

190

170

Chile

0

5

10

15

20

Parents’ Education (years)

00 042
00-042

360

Sociocultural

Gradients for

Cuba

Language

320

Scores

By Country

Argentina

Chile

280

Brazil

Language Score

Columbia

240

200

8

16

1

4

12

Parents\' Education - Years

03 122
03-122

Socioeconomic Gradients for Canada

and the United States

600

IV

III

500

Reading Score

Canada

Reading Level

OECD

II

United States

400

I

-2

-1

0

1

2

Socioeconomic Status

03 116
03-116

OUTCOME

MEASURES

03 085
03-085

Early Development Instrument (EDI)

Physical health and well-being

Social knowledge and competence

Emotional health/maturity

Language and cognitive development

Communication skills and general

knowledge

02 065
02-065

Percentage of Children Scoring in Bottom 10% by District

6-11%

12-18%

19-24%

25-30%

31-38%

Data unavailable

Early Development Instrument, Collection February 2000

02 064

Percentage Grade 4 Students Below Numeracy Expectations

02-064

0-11%

12-22%

23-34%

35-46%

47-58%

Source: Ministry of Education

00 117
00-117

First Ministers therefore agree to work

together so that young children can

fulfill their potential to be healthy, safe

and secure, ready to learn, and socially

engaged and responsible. In support of

this common goal, governments will

improve and expand early childhood

development programs and services

over time.

First Ministers’ Meeting, Government of Canada, September 11, 2000

03 067
03-067

Ontario Government

“Integrating all of our early

development programs

under the new Minister

for Human Development.”

The Road Ahead, Ont. PC’s, 2003

00 068
00-068

ECD

Social

Equality

Education

Health

Capital

Economic

Growth

Human Development

02 018
02-018

From Early Child Development

To

Human Development *

World Bank Report, 2002

01 039
01-039

www.founders.net

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