Water Resources. Hydrologic Cycle. Hydrosphere: All the water at or near the surface of the earth Amount of water essentially constant and moves between different reservoirs 100 million billion gallons move through Hydrologic Cycle
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Thousands of km3/yr
Clay 45-55% <0.01 m/day
sand 30-52% 0.01 - 10
gravel 25 - 45% 1000 to 10,000
Artesian System: Water rises above the level in aquifer because of hydrostatic pressure
Changes in ground-water levels in the High Plains aquifer from before ground-water development to 1997. (V.L. McGuire, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1998.)
Salt water incursion in caostal aquifer
Salt water intrusion in Miami-Dade
Dripstones in a cavern
Most of the water withdrawal is in the western states (see also the next slide)
Total withdrawal increased from 1950 to 1980 and has held steady since then although population has increased by 16%
The Colorado River flows through Utah to Lake Powell, thence through the northwest corner of Arizona to Lake Mead. From Hoover Dam it flows southward to Mexico forming the border between Nevada, California and Arizona, and yielding major diversions to central Arizona and southern California. The river is the lifeblood of the southwestern US and its development and management have been the focus of attention by the member states for more than a century. Waters of the Colorado River System have been apportioned by a treaty with Mexico, compacts, and a Supreme Court decree to the seven basin states.
Colorado River basin
Within Colorado water allocations are based on the Doctrine of Prior Appropriation or the First-in-Time, First-in-Right Doctrine. This doctrine is found in most arid states because when there is too little water to satisfy all users, sharing of the remaining water would be of little value to any user. But a large part of the Colorado river water is diverted to Los Angeles on the basis of this doctrine