the hawthorne effect and maternal depression care
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The Hawthorne Effect and Maternal Depression Care. Research Advisors: Jim Coyne, PhD Ian Bennett , MD, PhD Steve Marcus, PhD John Paul Julien University of Pennsylvania [email protected] Background. A brief overview.

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the hawthorne effect and maternal depression care

The Hawthorne Effect and Maternal Depression Care

Research Advisors: Jim Coyne, PhD

Ian Bennett, MD, PhD

Steve Marcus, PhD

John Paul Julien

University of Pennsylvania

[email protected]


A brief overview

major depressive disorder

4 – 16 % of women experience depression during pregnancy

  • Discontinued use of antidepressants when pregnant, increased rate of recurrence
  • Difficult detection due to overlapping pregnancy symptoms
Major Depressive Disorder
hawthorne effect

Observational phenomenon

  • Highly debated amongst scholars
  • Shown to alter patient and physician behaviors
Hawthorne Effect
pace pregnancy and changing emotions study

5R01MH081916-02 grant (P.I. James Coyne)

  • Identify influences on access and barriers to care of major depressive disorder (MDD) for pregnant and postpartum women
  • Mixed methods observational study
  • Assess how social and institutional factors affect detection and treatment of maternal MDD
Pace (Pregnancy and Changing Emotions) Study
timeline of pace study

Start of PACE Study

End of PACE Study

Jan 2009- March 2009

Jan 2010 – March 2010

July 2009

May 2013

Baseline maternal MDD rate

Comparison maternal MDD depression rate

Timeline of PACE Study

Determine whether or not Hawthorne Effect alters the detection and treatment of MDD in POGA practice

  • Quantify the Hawthorne Effect
  • Create baseline rate of depression detection before the PACE study
initial work1

Learn the methodology of health services research

        • Literature search
        • Article analysis
        • Understand bigger picture
  • Obtaining Data
        • Delivery Log abstraction
        • Construct chart abstraction form
        • Electronic medical record training
        • Depression detection rate spreadsheet
  • Writing projects
        • Introduction to Hawthorne paper
        • Methods section of Hawthorne paper
Initial work

Abstract 3 month period of deliveries from POGA delivery logs

  • Use EPIC EMR medical records to view patient files
  • Document depression diagnoses with chart abstraction form
  • Obtain rate of depression detection and treatment through spreadsheet
work in progress

Completing documentation via EPIC medical records

  • Quantifying rate of depression detection
  • Determining whether or not there is a Hawthorne Effect
Work in Progress

A look back

special thanks

Jim Coyne, PhD

  • Ian Bennett, MD, PhD
  • Steve Marcus, PhD
  • Jessica Rinaldi
  • Laura Hanisch, PhD
  • Steve Palmer, PhD
Special Thanks

Halbreich U. Prevalence of mood symptoms and depressions during pregnancy: implications for clinical practice and research. CNS Spectr. 2004;9(3):177-184

  • Kupfer DJ, Frank E, Perel JM, et al. Five-year outcome for maintenance therapies in recurrent depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49(10):769-773
  • Anita H. Clayton, MD. Considerations in Women’s Mental Health: Depression During Pregnancy. Primary Psychiatry. 2004;11(7):17-18
  • Amici et al, “Impact of the Hawthorne Effect in a Longitudinal Clinical Study: The Case of Anesthesia,” Controlled Clinical Trials 2000; 21: 103-114.
  • Rob McCarney, James Warner, Steve Iliffe, Robbert van Haselen, Mark Griffin Peter Fisher, “The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial,” BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007; 7: 30
  • PH Feil, JS Grauer, CC Gadbury-Amyot, K Kula, MD McCunniff, “Intentional use of the Hawthorne effect to improve oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients,” Journal of Dental Education 2002; 66: 1129-1135.
  • Rita Mangione-Smith, Marc N Elliott, Laurie McDonald, Elizabeth A McGlynn, “An Observational Study of Antibiotic Prescribing Behavior and the Hawthorne Effect,” Health Services Research 2002;37,6: 1603–1623.