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The Effect of Smell on Taste. By Kesav R. Dale T. Daniel F. And Mike P. The Olfactory System.

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The effect of smell on taste l.jpg

The Effect of Smell on Taste

By Kesav R.

Dale T.

Daniel F.

And

Mike P.


The olfactory system l.jpg
The Olfactory System

  • Olfactory receptors line nasal epithelium, axon extends through pores in bones of skull, dendrite has branches, olfactory cilia that contain receptor proteins for odorants, protected by a thin layer of mucus


Olfactory system l.jpg
Olfactory System

  • Receptors send axons to olfactory bulb, in primates lies over nose, in other vertebrates posterior to nose

  • Axons from olfactory bulb enter brain via olfactory tract, project to primary olfactory cortex or pyriform cortex on anterioventral of anterioventral of telencephalon, no passage through thalamus


Taste l.jpg
Taste

  • Taste is one of the five senses used by the brain to distinguish certain aspects of the natural world, and discern poisons and unhealthy foods

  • The main instrument used to taste is the tongue

  • However, recognition and memory also plays a role in taste


The tongue l.jpg
The Tongue

  • The tongue has clusters of taste-receptor cells in taste buds.

  • Taste buds are organized into five groups of sensors:

    Bitter

    Sour

    Sweet

    Salty

    Umami


Taste buds l.jpg
Taste Buds

  • Gustatory receptors found on the tongue, throat, and oral lining (primarily the cheeks)

  • Taste pores cluster together to form taste buds

  • Each receptor is connected through a synapse to at least one sensory neuron leading to the back of the brain


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How Is Flavor Recognized?

  • Collaboration of taste, smell, and the brain

  • Sensed by taste sensations, food temperature, texture, and odor.


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What Causes Smell and Taste Disorders?

  • Aging or birth defects

  • Several other causes such as laryngitis and smoking


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Disturbance of Smell

  • Transport olfactory loss

  • Sensory olfactory losses

  • Others including specific anosmia and and partial anosmia


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Effects of Disorders

  • Loss of senses

  • Loss of ability to distinguish flavor


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How to Diagnose Disorders

  • Several easy tests, such as the “scratch-and-sniff” test and the “sip, spit and rinse” test.


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Medication

  • Several treatments to improve conditions

  • No proper medication


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Bibliography

  • Jacob, Tim. “Taste- A Brief Tutorial.” http://www.cf.ac.uk/biosci/staff/jacob/te aching/sensory/taste.html. Accessed 4/25/04.

  • Encyclopaedia Encarta. “The Tongue.”

    http://www.encarta.com. Accessed 4/23/04.

  • Anonymous. “The Sense of Taste.

    http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultrauet/BiologyPages/T/Taste.htm. Accessed 4/22/04.

  • Anonymous. “Smell and Taste Disorders.”

    http://www.entnet.org/healthinfo/topics/smell_taste.cfm. Accessed 4/19/04.


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