PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION. UNIT SIX Chapters 35,36,37,38,39. Angiosperm Structure. Angiosperms are further divided into 4 major categories: Basal Angiosperms (older angiosperms like Water lilies) Magnoliids (newer like the Magnolia) Monocotyledons a.k.a. monocots (newer still)
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Have a single seed leaf
- Dicotyledons and/or Eudicotyledons a.k.a. eudicots (newest)
Have double seed leaves
Rice, wheat, corn – all monocots
Ginger, bamboo, many self-naturalizing perennials like lily of the valley
Bulblike structures (e.g. garlic) will separate into small segments when broken apart.
Solid bulb, without concentric segments
Roots that grow out of the stem or trunk - sometimes for extra support, sometimes for vegetative reproduction
Single and double compound leaves
Tendrils for grasping
When guard cells take up water, they become turgid and this closes the stomata. Loss of water from the cells makes them flaccid and this opens the stomata.
In a C3 leaf the palisade mesophyll cells typically form a layer in the upper part of the leaf; the corresponding mesophyll cells in a C4 leaf are usually arranged in a ring around the bundle sheath cells. The bundle-sheath cells of C4 plants have chloroplasts (dark green), those of C3 leaves usually lack them.
Bundle sheath cells surround vascular bundles – thus the name.
Because they have thick walls but lack lignin, they are able to provide support without restricting growth – hence found in young, growing parts
*see slide #31 for non-protoplast-containing phloem
Collenchyma (also called the cortex – which is ground tissue between the epidermis and the vascular bundles)
A thin layer of cells called the vascular cambium separates the xylem and phloem
Parenchyma or pith
Also known as the Pith in stems – stores food (amyloplasts) and water (central vacuoles)
Pith – a central core of parenchyma cells that store food – mostly in monocots
Stele – a vascular bundle that gives rise to both xylem and phloem
Pericycle – the outermost layer of the stele that sprouts the lateral roots
Casparian strip – a thin strip or coating that prevents water from seeping between cells
No pith or parenchyma in dicot roots
There are 2 types of lateral meristems:
Dew appears as many droplets and is caused by the condensation of atmospheric water vapor
Guttation appears as single droplets of water
and is the plant’s way of removing water
Alpine Pennycress is used to absorb
Zinc from agricultural soil