Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning
Download
1 / 26

Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning : What and How - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1298 Views
  • Updated On :

Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning : What and How. Part 1 Professor John Biggs. Outcomes-based Education (OBE). There are three main forms of “OBE”. All focus on educational outcomes but each is based on a different philosophy. It’s easy to confuse them.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning : What and How' - Jimmy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning: What and How

Part 1

Professor John Biggs


Outcomes based education obe l.jpg
Outcomes-based Education (OBE)

There are three main forms of “OBE”. All focus on

educational outcomes but each is based on a different

philosophy. It’s easy to confuse them.

1. Outcome-based Education at school level. Originally

for disadvantaged children, but later used generally e.g. Target Oriented Curriculum (TOC) for individualising teaching.

2. Outcomes-based Education. Outcomes at institutional level, used for benchmarking, credit-transfer.

3. Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning (OBTL). Defining learning outcomes at course and subject level,

to enhance teaching and learning.


Obe institutional outcomes l.jpg
OBE: Institutional Outcomes

Most US institutions now have a set of outcomes statements using this ‘taxonomy’:

  • Knowledge Outcomes (two sub-dimensions),

  • Skills Outcomes (two sub-dimensions),

  • Attitude/Value Outcomes (four sub-dimensions),

  • Relationships with Society and with Particular Constituency Outcomes (four sub-dimensions).

    This is used to map outcomes across institutions, for the purposes of quality assurance at the institutional level, benchmarking, cross-institutional credit transfer, and for employers and other external stakeholders. Has little directly to do with enhancing teaching and learning


What the ugc said l.jpg
What the UGC said

“The UGC’s goal in promoting outcome-based approaches is simple and straightforward—improvement and enhancement in student learning and teaching quality.” (Alice Lam, May 06)

OBTL, in other words.

“We think that the curriculum revision under '3 + 3 + 4' will be a good opportunity to weave 'outcomes' into the new curriculum.”

The UGC also plans to provide encouragement in the form of extra funding to promote early adoption.


Slide5 l.jpg

Assessment:

How well has

the student

has attained

the ILOs

Teaching:

To facilitate

attaining the

ILOs

ILO:

What the

student has

to do

Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning (OBTL): Classroom Based


Slide6 l.jpg

Assessment:

How well

the student

has met the

ILO

Teaching:

Engaging the

student in the

verb in the ILO

ILO:

What the student

has to learn

Implementing OBTL using Constructive Alignment


Slide7 l.jpg

Outcome-based Teaching and Learning through Constructive Alignment

There are four steps in designing such teaching:

1. describe intended outcomes in the form of standards students are to attain using appropriate learning verbs.

2. create a learning environment likely to bring about the intended outcomes.

3. use assessment tasks enabling you to judge if and how well students’ performances meet the criteria.

4. transform these judgments into standard grading criteria.


Slide8 l.jpg

Teaching / Learning Alignment

Activities

Designed to

elicit desired

verbs

May be:

Large class activities

Small class activities

Teacher-managed

Peer-managed

Self-managed

as best suits context

Assessment Tasks

Format such that

the target verbs are

elicited and

deployed

in context.

Criteria clearly allow

judgement as to the

quality of the

student's

performance

Constructive Alignment

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

expressed as verbs students have to enact

A

The very best understanding that could be

reasonably expected: verbs such as

hypothesise, apply to “far” domains,

generate, relate to principle, etc.

B

Highly satisfactory understanding: verbs

such as explain, solve, understand main

ideas, analyze, compare, etc.

C

Quite satisfactory learning, with under-

standing at a declarative level: verbs such

as elaborate, classify, cover topics a to n,

D

Understanding at a level that would

warrant a Pass: low level verbs, also

inadequate but salvageable higher level

attempts.


Slide9 l.jpg

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) Alignment

. Statements of what students are expected to be

able to do as a result of engaging in the learning process (studying a course/programme).

. Expressed from the students' perspective.

. Expressed in the form of action verbs leading to observable and assessable behaviour.

. Related to criteria for assessing student performance.


Slide10 l.jpg

The Verbs in the ILOs Alignment

  • It is useful to express ILOs by using appropriate verbs.

  • Teaching is specifically aimed at activating those verbs.

  • Students should be unable to complete the assessment tasks unless they enact the same verbs that are in the ILOs (criterion-referenced).

  • Generic high level verbs include: reflect, hypothesise, solve unseen complex problems, generate new alternatives. Such verbs might typically be used to define an A or B grade in meeting the ILOs, depending on the course. Low level verbs such as describe, identify, memorize would be more frequent in defining C and D grades.


Slide11 l.jpg

Distinction between Teaching Objectives and Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

Teaching objective (aims)

What the teacher intends to do.

e.g. Introduce university teachers to outcomes-based teaching and learning

Intended learning outcomes (for the participants)

What the participants are expected to be able to do

having been introduced to OBTL

e.g. 1. Distinguish between outcomes-based education and outcomes-based teaching and learning.

2. Explain how constructive alignment is used to design teaching and assessment methods.

3. Write an ILO for a subject they are currently teaching.


Slide12 l.jpg

Levels of ILOs Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

University level

What are the attributes of an ideal graduate of BU?

Course level

What are the intended learning outcomes for students enrolled in the degree course?

Subject level

What are the intended learning outcomes for students taking a particular subject at a particular level within the course?


Slide13 l.jpg

Subject ILOs Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

Course ILOs

Subject 1

Subject 2

Subject3

Course and Subject ILOs

Alignment between the course and subject ILOs

1. Are the ILOs aligned?

2. Do the subject ILOs appropriately address the course ILOs?

3. Are the weightings appropriate?

4. Are there any gaps?


Slide14 l.jpg

Distinguish the Learning Outcomes (ILOs) kind of knowledge you want

Declarativeknowledge:

. Knowing about things

. Knowledge we can declare to someone in

writing or telling

e.g. ‘Distinguish between OBE and OBTL’

Functioningknowledge:

. Knowledge we put to work in solving a physics problem, analysing a case study, designing a building, making an argument

e.g. ‘Write an ILO for a subject you are currently teaching’


Slide15 l.jpg

Procedures in designing Subject ILOs Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

1. Decide what kind of knowledge is to be taught -

Declarative or functioning.

2.Select the topics to be taught.

3. Decide the levels of understanding the students are expected to achieve for the different topics.

4. Consider if all the ILOs are of equal importance.

5. Ensure a clear understanding and agreement of the ILOs within the teaching team and other relevant parties e.g. External Reviewer.

6. Communicate the ILOs to students.


Slide16 l.jpg

Create Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

Formulate

Generate

Hypothesize

Reflect

Theorize

Analyze

Apply

Argue

Compare/

contrast

Criticize

Explain causes

Relate

Justify

. . . .

Combine

Describe

Enumerate

Perform serial skills

List

Identify

Name

Follow simple

procedure

The SOLO Taxonomy with

sample verbs indicating levels of understanding

Competence

Fail

Incompetent

Misses point

Incompetence

one relevant several relevant integrated into generalized to

aspect independent aspects a structure new domain

Prestructural Unistructural Multistructural Relational Extended Abstract


Slide17 l.jpg

Levels of Understanding / Performance Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

Some examples:

Unistructural identify, name, state (a principle), select

Multistructural combine, collate, describe, extract, give an account of, list, present, report on

Relational analyze, apply, argue, compare/contrast, criticize, discuss, explain, justify, organize, relate

Extended abstract create, formulate, generate, hypothesize,

reflect, theorize

* Some of the lower levels could be subsumed into the higher levels. E.g. To apply appropriate communicative strategies in reading and writing to different tasks will subsume the lower level ILOs such as identify, name and select.


Slide18 l.jpg

Some vague ILO verbs Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

Appreciate

Become aware of

Familiarise with

Know

Learn about

Understand

How do these verbs manifest themselves in terms of change of behaviour or standards of / performance?


Slide19 l.jpg

A Sample Set of Subject ILOs Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

Subject: Communicative strategies

Aims: Develop appropriate communicative strategies and improve students' general level of proficiency in English

Intended learning outcomes (some examples):

1. Explain different strategies used in communication.

2. Apply appropriate strategies in different modes of communication.

3. Reflect on and improve own communicative strategies.


Slide20 l.jpg

Designing Teaching/Learning Activities to align with Intended Learning Outcomes

Having designed Course ILOs and the

Subject ILOs, we now need to activate the verbs or learning activities embedded in the ILOs by designing suitable Teaching/Learning Activities that will

facilitate students achieving the ILOs.

There are many alternatives to lectures and tutorials, even in large classes.


Slide21 l.jpg

Four common teaching situations and associated teaching and learning activities

SituationTeaching activitiesLearning activities

LECTURE talk, explain, clarify listen, take notes, accept, query, discuss with peers, one-minute paper

TUTORIAL set/answer questions pre-read, prepare questions, provide feedback learn from peers, critique, analyse

PROJECT set brief, ongoing apply, create, self-monitor feedback communicate, teamwork

PBL set problems set learning goals, design, apply,

accessing desired integrate, solve problems content, skills

What teaching/learning activities will best facilitate your ILOs?


Typical ilo possible tlas l.jpg
Typical ILO Possible TLAs learning activities

Describe set reading, lecture, field trip

Explain tutorial, written essay

Integrate project, assignment

Apply project, case study

Solve problem PBL, case study

Design, create project, creative writing

Hypothesise experiment, project

Reflect reflective diary

The point is not how you are going to teach but how and what you want your students tolearn.

NOTE! Many of these TLAs can be assessment tasks as well. Then you have excellent alignment.


Slide23 l.jpg

Adjusting TLAs to Relative Importance of ILOs learning activities

  • Is the time spent on TLAs reflecting the relative weight or importance of the ILO addressed?


Slide24 l.jpg

Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on written communicative strategies

1. Explain different (writing) communicative strategies.

TLAs: a. Plenary session (‘lectures’)

Teaching activities - describe, explain, elaborate, clarify

Learning activities - pre-reading, ask questions, group

discussion, explain to peers

b. Write assignment

Teaching activities - set topics and guidelines, provide feedback

Learning activities - explain the strategies in the assignment

There may be other TLAs which will engage students in

explaining different writing communicative strategies.


Slide25 l.jpg

Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on written communicative strategies

2. Apply appropriate (writing) communicative strategies

TLAs: a. Case study

Teaching activities - select case study material (may be), provide comments and feedback

Learning activities - select piece of writing for case study, discuss with peers in small groups, analyse, comment, suggest ways of improvement, present own ideas or discussion results in an individual written assignment

b. Write an assignment or a group discussion report

Teaching activities - set topic (may be), give guideline of requirements of the assignment (relate requirements to relevant ILOs), provide feedback

Learning activities - write the assignment using appropriate strategies, revise, edit, self-assess

There may be other TLAs which will engage students in applying

appropriate strategies in a range of writing tasks.


Slide26 l.jpg

Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on writing communicative strategies

3. Reflect and improve own writing communicative strategies.

TLAs: Self-assessment

Teaching activities - provide feedback

Learning activities - self-evaluate a piece of own writing, e.g. an earlier assignment in relation to theories on writing communicative strategies, identify strengths and areas for improvement, revise writing using appropriate strategies in light of evaluation

There may be other TLAs which will engage students in

reflecting and improving their own writing strategies.