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Imperial China. 221 B.C. – 1911 A.D. China before Qin Dynasty. The “Yellow Emperor” Xia and Shang Dynasties 2070 B.C. - 1046 B.C. Zhou Dynasty 1046 B.C. - 256 B.C. “Spring and Autumn” period 770 B.C. - 476 B.C. Confucius. born in 551 B.C. died in 479 B.C. In China Today. Confucianism.

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imperial china

Imperial China

221 B.C. – 1911 A.D.

china before qin dynasty
China before Qin Dynasty
  • The “Yellow Emperor”
  • Xia and Shang Dynasties
    • 2070 B.C. - 1046 B.C.
  • Zhou Dynasty
    • 1046 B.C. - 256 B.C.
  • “Spring and Autumn” period
    • 770 B.C. - 476 B.C.
confucius
Confucius
  • born in 551 B.C.
  • died in 479 B.C.
confucianism
Confucianism
  • Concerned primarily with restoring social stability and order
  • a system of social and ethical philosophy
  • li
    • rituals, norms, institutions, or mores
  • ren
    • humaneness, kindness, benevolence, or virtue
five relationships
Five Relationships
  • father-child
  • ruler-subject
  • husband-wife
  • elder brother-younger brother
  • friend-friend
qin dynasty
Qin Dynasty
  • 221 B.C. - 206 B.C.
  • Qin Shi Huangdi
  • unified China
  • built a centralized bureaucratic apparatus
    • prefectures and counties
  • persecuted Confucianism
  • Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.) promoted Confucianism as state ideology
civil service exam system
Civil Service Exam System
  • 605 A.D. to 1905 A.D.
  • composition based on Confucian classics
china s tributary system
China’s Tributary System
  • Traditional system for managing foreign relations
  • The ``Middle Kingdom” worldview
  • Ming dynasty had the most extensive tributary system
    • tributes from East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and even West Asia and Africa
qing dynasty 1644 1912
Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1912)
  • Ming dynasty fell in 1644 amid peasant uprisings and Manchu invasion
  • Manchu and Han Chinese
western invasions 1839 1900
Western invasions (1839-1900)
  • Opium War (1839 - 1842)
  • The Second Opium War (1856 - 1860)
  • Russia’s territorial gains
    • Northeast China (1858 - 1860)
    • Northwest China (1881 - 1884)
  • Sino-French War (1883 - 1885)
  • Sino-Japanese War (1894 - 95)
  • 8-nation forces (1900)
the treaty system
The Treaty System
  • large amount of indemnity
  • dozens of treaty ports open to foreign
    • trade
    • gunboats
    • missionaries
  • territorial losses
  • tariffs
weakness fully exposed
Weakness fully exposed
  • Sino-Japanese War of 1894 - 1895
    • Chinese navy destroyed
    • Taiwan ceded to Japan
    • large indemnity
    • most-favored-nation
    • more treaty ports
    • Korea
  • start of Japanese empire
the scramble for answers
The scramble for answers
  • radicalization of domestic politics
  • the “Hundred Days of Reform” in 1898
    • ambitious reform program
      • examination system
      • bureaucracy
      • modernization
    • suppressed by conservatives in Qing court
  • reformist leaders fled to Japan
the boxer uprising in 1900
The Boxer Uprising in 1900
  • Peasants in Northern China
  • support from high officials of Qing court
  • destruction of anything foreign
  • siege of the legation quarter in Beijing
8 nation forces invaded beijing
8-nation forces invaded Beijing
  • Harsh settlement
  • station troops in Beijing
  • huge indemnity
  • Russian troops in Manchuria
    • until 1905
radicalization of politics
Radicalization of politics

status quo

modern monarchy

Qing court

Reformers

Peasants

Revolutionaries

republic

pre-1841 China

Marxism?

nationalism?

legacies of imperial era
Legacies of Imperial Era
  • enormous size
  • ideological and moral commitment
  • strong personal leadership at the apex
  • nationwide governing bureaucracies
    • merit-based civil service exam system
    • combination of executive and judicial power
  • low status of merchants
  • culturalism (civilization) v. nationalism
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