Imperial china
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Imperial China. 221 B.C. – 1911 A.D. China before Qin Dynasty. The “Yellow Emperor” Xia and Shang Dynasties 2070 B.C. - 1046 B.C. Zhou Dynasty 1046 B.C. - 256 B.C. “Spring and Autumn” period 770 B.C. - 476 B.C. Confucius. born in 551 B.C. died in 479 B.C. In China Today. Confucianism.

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Imperial China

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Imperial china

Imperial China

221 B.C. – 1911 A.D.


China before qin dynasty

China before Qin Dynasty

  • The “Yellow Emperor”

  • Xia and Shang Dynasties

    • 2070 B.C. - 1046 B.C.

  • Zhou Dynasty

    • 1046 B.C. - 256 B.C.

  • “Spring and Autumn” period

    • 770 B.C. - 476 B.C.


Confucius

Confucius

  • born in 551 B.C.

  • died in 479 B.C.


In china today

In China Today


Confucianism

Confucianism

  • Concerned primarily with restoring social stability and order

  • a system of social and ethical philosophy

  • li

    • rituals, norms, institutions, or mores

  • ren

    • humaneness, kindness, benevolence, or virtue


Five relationships

Five Relationships

  • father-child

  • ruler-subject

  • husband-wife

  • elder brother-younger brother

  • friend-friend


Qin dynasty

Qin Dynasty

  • 221 B.C. - 206 B.C.

  • Qin Shi Huangdi

  • unified China

  • built a centralized bureaucratic apparatus

    • prefectures and counties

  • persecuted Confucianism

  • Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.) promoted Confucianism as state ideology


Civil service exam system

Civil Service Exam System

  • 605 A.D. to 1905 A.D.

  • composition based on Confucian classics


Ming dynasty 1368 1644

Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644)


China s tributary system

China’s Tributary System

  • Traditional system for managing foreign relations

  • The ``Middle Kingdom” worldview

  • Ming dynasty had the most extensive tributary system

    • tributes from East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and even West Asia and Africa


Qing dynasty 1644 1912

Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1912)

  • Ming dynasty fell in 1644 amid peasant uprisings and Manchu invasion

  • Manchu and Han Chinese


Ming and qing emperors

Ming and Qing Emperors


Mandate of heaven

Mandate of Heaven


Western invasions 1839 1900

Western invasions (1839-1900)

  • Opium War (1839 - 1842)

  • The Second Opium War (1856 - 1860)

  • Russia’s territorial gains

    • Northeast China (1858 - 1860)

    • Northwest China (1881 - 1884)

  • Sino-French War (1883 - 1885)

  • Sino-Japanese War (1894 - 95)

  • 8-nation forces (1900)


The treaty system

The Treaty System

  • large amount of indemnity

  • dozens of treaty ports open to foreign

    • trade

    • gunboats

    • missionaries

  • territorial losses

  • tariffs


Weakness fully exposed

Weakness fully exposed

  • Sino-Japanese War of 1894 - 1895

    • Chinese navy destroyed

    • Taiwan ceded to Japan

    • large indemnity

    • most-favored-nation

    • more treaty ports

    • Korea

  • start of Japanese empire


The scramble for concessions

The scramble for concessions


The scramble for answers

The scramble for answers

  • radicalization of domestic politics

  • the “Hundred Days of Reform” in 1898

    • ambitious reform program

      • examination system

      • bureaucracy

      • modernization

    • suppressed by conservatives in Qing court

  • reformist leaders fled to Japan


The boxer uprising in 1900

The Boxer Uprising in 1900

  • Peasants in Northern China

  • support from high officials of Qing court

  • destruction of anything foreign

  • siege of the legation quarter in Beijing


8 nation forces invaded beijing

8-nation forces invaded Beijing

  • Harsh settlement

  • station troops in Beijing

  • huge indemnity

  • Russian troops in Manchuria

    • until 1905


Imperialism in china

Imperialism in China


Radicalization of politics

Radicalization of politics

status quo

modern monarchy

Qing court

Reformers

Peasants

Revolutionaries

republic

pre-1841 China

Marxism?

nationalism?


Legacies of imperial era

Legacies of Imperial Era

  • enormous size

  • ideological and moral commitment

  • strong personal leadership at the apex

  • nationwide governing bureaucracies

    • merit-based civil service exam system

    • combination of executive and judicial power

  • low status of merchants

  • culturalism (civilization) v. nationalism


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