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Brief Introduction: Indonesia. Images of Indonesia. Images of Indonesia. Largest Archipelagic State (230 millions) “Unity in Diversity” Most populous Muslim majority country – non Islamic state Modern Economy – hit hard by 1997 crisis Ethnic and Religious Violence + Global Terrorism

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images of indonesia3
Images of Indonesia
  • Largest Archipelagic State (230 millions)
  • “Unity in Diversity”
  • Most populous Muslim majority country – non Islamic state
  • Modern Economy – hit hard by 1997 crisis
  • Ethnic and Religious Violence + Global Terrorism
  • Corruption and Military Involvement in Politics
pre colonial indonesia
Pre-Colonial Indonesia
  • Indonesia as colonial/post colonial term (India Archipelago 19th century – both by colonial power and nationalist)
  • Trade region: China/India/Middle East/Europe – spice trade
  • No single/comprehensive ancient state – series of ancient kingdom  7th century Srivijaya (Buddhism and Hinduism) 8th Cent. Sailendra
  • 13th – 16th century Islamization: localized
  • Javanese Domination (demography, economy, and politics)
european colonization
European Colonization
  • 1512: Portuguese – monopoly of spice trade + Catholic
  • 1602: Dutch VOC (negotiation with local elites)  1800 Dutch East India (more plantation) 1900s Ethical Policy (education for local population for colonial bureaucracy + western educated nationalist elite)
  • 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty (Dividing Malaysia and Indonesia)
  • (Modern) Nationalist movements since 1908: Religious, Indonesian Nationalist (1927), Socialist (1928)
  • WW II: Japanese Occupation: Republic of Indonesia and the creation of modern Indonesian army (opt. National Indies Army by Dutch)
post colonial indonesia sukarno
Post Colonial Indonesia: Sukarno
  • 1945-1949: Struggle with the Netherlands
  • Malay as Bahasa Indonesia: imagined community (1928: One Nation – Indonesia, One People – Indonesian, One Language – Indonesia)
  • National Culture (Javanese domination)
  • 1945-1966: Sukarno – Nonaligned
  • 1958: “Guided Democracy” – martial law  military in politic
  • Islamic Insurgency (Darul Islam 48-62) and Communist Movement (PKI)
post colonial indonesia suharto
Post Colonial Indonesia: Suharto
  • 1965: Political Turmoil (PKI V.S. Army)
  • 1966: Coup + Outlawing PKI
  • 1967: The New Order – Gen. Suharto (Golkar)
  • Political Suppression, Corruption, But Economic Growth (Oil), Patronage system with Chinese Merchant
  • 1975 Invasion of East Timor
economic crisis and aftermath
Economic Crisis and Aftermath
  • 1997 melt down
  • Anti-Chinese Riot
  • 1998 Suharto Resigned
  • 1999 East Timor Independence
  • 2004 Settling with Aceh
  • From Islamic Insurgency to Terrorism (JI – Jemaah Islamiyah since 80s)
reference
Reference
  • Kingsbury, D. (2005). South-East Asia: A Political Profile. Melbourne, Oxford University Press.
  • Lamoureux, F. (2003). Indonesia: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO.
  • Owen, N. G., Ed. (2005). The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. Honolulu, University of Hawai\'i Press
  • Wikepedia: Indonesia, History of Indonesia
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