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Brief Introduction: Indonesia. Images of Indonesia. Images of Indonesia. Largest Archipelagic State (230 millions) “Unity in Diversity” Most populous Muslim majority country – non Islamic state Modern Economy – hit hard by 1997 crisis Ethnic and Religious Violence + Global Terrorism

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Brief Introduction: Indonesia

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Brief Introduction: Indonesia


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Images of Indonesia


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Images of Indonesia

  • Largest Archipelagic State (230 millions)

  • “Unity in Diversity”

  • Most populous Muslim majority country – non Islamic state

  • Modern Economy – hit hard by 1997 crisis

  • Ethnic and Religious Violence + Global Terrorism

  • Corruption and Military Involvement in Politics


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Pre-Colonial Indonesia

  • Indonesia as colonial/post colonial term (India Archipelago 19th century – both by colonial power and nationalist)

  • Trade region: China/India/Middle East/Europe – spice trade

  • No single/comprehensive ancient state – series of ancient kingdom  7th century Srivijaya (Buddhism and Hinduism) 8th Cent. Sailendra

  • 13th – 16th century Islamization: localized

  • Javanese Domination (demography, economy, and politics)


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European Colonization

  • 1512: Portuguese – monopoly of spice trade + Catholic

  • 1602: Dutch VOC (negotiation with local elites)  1800 Dutch East India (more plantation) 1900s Ethical Policy (education for local population for colonial bureaucracy + western educated nationalist elite)

  • 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty (Dividing Malaysia and Indonesia)

  • (Modern) Nationalist movements since 1908: Religious, Indonesian Nationalist (1927), Socialist (1928)

  • WW II: Japanese Occupation: Republic of Indonesia and the creation of modern Indonesian army (opt. National Indies Army by Dutch)


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Post Colonial Indonesia: Sukarno

  • 1945-1949: Struggle with the Netherlands

  • Malay as Bahasa Indonesia: imagined community (1928: One Nation – Indonesia, One People – Indonesian, One Language – Indonesia)

  • National Culture (Javanese domination)

  • 1945-1966: Sukarno – Nonaligned

  • 1958: “Guided Democracy” – martial law  military in politic

  • Islamic Insurgency (Darul Islam 48-62) and Communist Movement (PKI)


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Post Colonial Indonesia: Suharto

  • 1965: Political Turmoil (PKI V.S. Army)

  • 1966: Coup + Outlawing PKI

  • 1967: The New Order – Gen. Suharto (Golkar)

  • Political Suppression, Corruption, But Economic Growth (Oil), Patronage system with Chinese Merchant

  • 1975 Invasion of East Timor


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Economic Crisis and Aftermath

  • 1997 melt down

  • Anti-Chinese Riot

  • 1998 Suharto Resigned

  • 1999 East Timor Independence

  • 2004 Settling with Aceh

  • From Islamic Insurgency to Terrorism (JI – Jemaah Islamiyah since 80s)


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Reference

  • Kingsbury, D. (2005). South-East Asia: A Political Profile. Melbourne, Oxford University Press.

  • Lamoureux, F. (2003). Indonesia: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO.

  • Owen, N. G., Ed. (2005). The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press

  • Wikepedia: Indonesia, History of Indonesia


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