Expected value (µ) = ∑ y P(y). Sample mean ( X ) = ∑X i / n. Sample standard deviation = √[∑(X i - X ) 2 / (n-1)]. iid: independent and identically distributed. Suppose X 1 , X 2 , etc. are iid with expected value µ and sd s ,. LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS : X ---> µ .

Expected value (µ) = ∑ y P(y)

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