Elements of map composition
Download
1 / 44

Elements of Map Composition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 842 Views
  • Updated On :

Elements of Map Composition. OR How to make a decent map!. Steps to Creating a Map. Define the Purpose of the map Audience? How will map be used? Restatement into a design problem Visualization to Creation Design solution - arrangement of map’s image elements to facilitate communication

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Elements of Map Composition' - Jimmy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Elements of map composition l.jpg

Elements of Map Composition

OR

How to make a decent map!


Steps to creating a map l.jpg
Steps to Creating a Map

  • Define the Purpose of the map

    • Audience?

    • How will map be used?

  • Restatement into a design problem

  • Visualization to Creation

  • Design solution - arrangement of map’s image elements to facilitate communication

    • Sort of an outline

  • Graphic design


The well designed map l.jpg
The Well Designed Map…

  • Has a single purpose!

  • Size and scale determine the level of detail

    • You cannot simply blow up a map from 8.5-11 to something that would hang on the wall.

    • A small map size will limit detail

    • A large map viewed from a distance has same problem

  • Reader can easily interpret features

  • Reader can instantaneously understand its message (or not, if that is the purpose).


  • For example l.jpg
    For example

    If you were trying to make the case that you should be able to limit the publics use of your lake which map would you use?


    Elements of a thematic map l.jpg
    Elements of a thematic map

    • Title

    • Legend

    • Scale

    • Credits

    • Mapped and unmapped areas

    • Graticule

    • Borders and neatlines

    • Symbols

    • Place names and labels


    Slide6 l.jpg

    Mapped Area

    Title

    Border

    Legend

    Neatline

    Gradicule

    Purpose, metadata

    Unmapped Area

    Credits

    Scale


    Slide7 l.jpg

    Too Much White Space!

    No Placenames

    ArcView Export screw up in 8.3! Only went to 3000 m in Layout!


    The elements one by one l.jpg
    The elements one-by-one

    • Title

      • Draws attention by virtue of its size (big!)

      • focuses attention on primary purpose of content of map

      • not always needed

    • Legend

      • Principle reference to symbology

      • MUST be there


    The elements one by one9 l.jpg
    The elements one-by-one

    • Scale

      • A MUST!

      • Types

        • graphic -- the bar

        • verbal -- 1” = 1 mile (watch this one)

        • a ratio 1/24,000 (this one too)

      • Because of ubiquitous nature of Xerox machines the graphic scale is a must, the others are optional


    The elements one by one10 l.jpg
    The elements one-by-one

    • Credits

      • another, older, term for metadata

      • Some metadata can be placed on map

        • Data source

        • Statement of accuracy, both spatial and attribute

        • Date data collected, date map made

        • Your name, assignment # etc…


    The elements one by one11 l.jpg
    The elements one-by-one

    • Mapped and unmapped areas

      • Objects, land, water, and other geographical features important to the purpose of the map

      • makes the composition a map rather than a diagram

      • The most prominent map element

    • Graticule & Grids

      • Graticule – geographic coordinates

      • Often omitted

        • useful if location info is important and there are no features like roads or steams

        • Or if you need to fill space with something

      • Grid - feature at B3


    The elements one by one12 l.jpg
    The elements one-by-one

    • Borders and neatlines

      • Borders serve to restrain eye movement and focus attention on the map. A Border surrounds all the elements of a map.

      • Neatlines are:

        • finer than borders

        • drawn inside borders

        • mainly decoration


    Borders or not l.jpg

    Location of St, Louis

    Location of St, Louis

    Legend

    -adf asdf

    adfafffdsf

    Legend

    -adf asdf

    adfafffdsf

    Borders or Not

    • You can use solid fills to define map area


    The elements one by one14 l.jpg
    The elements one-by-one

    • Symbology

      • can be actual symbols (style of city point) and/or colors and patterns

      • most important part of map -- if user does not know what the symbolization is the map is useless

      • Designer has little control over placement (location should be as accurate as possible given scale) but can control size and color


    The elements one by one15 l.jpg
    The elements one-by-one

    • Place names and labels

      • Primary means of communicating to user

      • Orients user on map (similar to Graticule)

      • Can provide important info re map purpose


    Composition l.jpg
    Composition

    • You have all the data

    • You have the symbolization plan

    • Now you have to visualize the map

      • A creative process

      • Trial and error process

        • Where to put borders, neatlines

        • What style of borders, neatlines

        • Where does the legend go?

        • The title

        • And so on


    Composition17 l.jpg
    Composition

    • Purpose of composition

      • Forces designer or organize the visual material

      • Stresses the purpose of the map

      • Directs the users attention

      • Develops an aesthetic approach for the map


    Composition planar organization l.jpg

    Visual center:

    5% height aboveGeometric center

    Arrange content

    around

    this point

    Geometric

    center

    Composition: Planar Organization

    • Balance

      • visual impact of arrangement

        • is the map “heavy” at top, bottom, sides???


    Visual weight l.jpg
    Visual weight

    • depends on location

      • obj weight increases with distance from center

      • obj at top are heavier than those at bottom

      • obj on right are heavier than those on left

    • depends on size (Duh!)

    • depends on color, interest, and isolation

      • Red>Blue, Bright>dark

      • complex > simple

      • isolated > groups

    • For Example …



    More visual balance l.jpg

    Artist

    Engineer

    More Visual Balance




    Using eye movement l.jpg
    Using Eye Movement divisions

    Eye goes left to right

    Generally you want the reader to see the map BEFORE seeing the legend – can’t always do#


    Slide26 l.jpg

    St. Louis too far from visual center, balance not bad, however

    Better, but a little heavy on right

    Balance with legend etc.


    Slide27 l.jpg

    Location of St, Louis however

    Legend

    -adf asdf

    adfafffdsf





    Slide32 l.jpg
    Text however

    • Use mixture of upper and lower case

    • ALL UPPER CASE IS HARDER TO READ

    • Use sans serif text

    • No fancy fonts

    • Big print for important stuff

    • Little print for not so important stuff


    Using color l.jpg
    Using Color however

    • Color is tricky

    • There are definite color preferences

    • There are definite color combination preferences

    • There are standard color codes (like for planning)

    • The map should NOT be garish!


    Slide34 l.jpg
    So however

    • Creating maps is a creating a document for a specific purpose -- to communicate something to the reader

    • It is an iterative process

    • There are some basic rules or guides that can be used – described above an in the on-line course module.


    Summary of guidelines l.jpg
    Summary of Guidelines however

    • Map layout – where are the pieces going to go – major pieces – visual center – eye path – uneven juxtaposition of parts

      • The map area and what’s in it

      • Legend placement (usually to right of map

      • Scale bar, North Arrow

      • Balance

      • White space

    • Map Title – Large – not always needed


    Summary of guidelines36 l.jpg
    Summary of Guidelines however

    • Credits (Metadata) usually present

    • For FOR557- Author’s name & date!

    • Borders and neatlines.

      • Border around ALL map pieces or solid fill

      • Neatlines (or fill) around (in) various pieces

    • Color – tricky – but not garish!


    Map evaluation criteria l.jpg
    Map Evaluation Criteria however

    • Graphic Map ……………………………………..50%

      • Border (or fill)……………10%

      • White space …………………5%

      • Balance…………………………...5%

      • Color………………………………..5%

      • N arrow, legend …………..10%

      • Neatlines (or fill)…………..5%

      • Graphics ……………………….10%

    • Total ………………………………………….……….50%


    Map evaluation criteria38 l.jpg
    Map Evaluation Criteria however

    • Title …………………………………………..5%

    • Legend ………………………………………20%

      • All features represented

      • Only those specific feature types present

      • Good graphically

    • Scale Bar …………………………………..10%

    • Credits ………………………………… …….5%

    • Map Works…………………………………10%

    • Sub Total……………………………………………..50%

    • Grand Total……………………………………………………100%


    Slide44 l.jpg

    Graphics however


    ad