Doing right things ethics and decision making in human organizations
Download
1 / 73

doing right things: ethics and decision making in human organizations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 222 Views
  • Uploaded on

Doing Right Things: Ethics and Decision Making in Human Organizations. MPA 8002 The Structure and Theory of Human Organization Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D. THE CHALLENGE OF ETHICS.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'doing right things: ethics and decision making in human organizations' - Jimmy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Doing right things ethics and decision making in human organizations l.jpg

Doing Right Things:Ethics and Decision Making in Human Organizations

MPA 8002

The Structure and Theory

of Human Organization

Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.


Slide2 l.jpg

THE CHALLENGE OF ETHICS

For generations, managers and leaders have wondered not only about what they might do when confronted by particularly troublesome dilemmas in their organizations. Sensing their responsibility to make things better, these women and men have also struggled to do what they believe and hope is the right thing to do.


Slide3 l.jpg

…assumes that there exist

norms

principles

values

...that have, are, and always will provide the foundation for a good life


Slide4 l.jpg

…but are the product of rational reflection upon human existence

…and exist independent of any religious, moral, political, or social system (i.e., are universally true)


Slide5 l.jpg

…while they do not specify what the decision should be

…they do provide a principled framework to engage in making good decisions

…for which managers and leaders bear responsibility


Some basic ethical principles l.jpg
Some basic ethical principles... decision making...

  • mutuality

  • generalizability

  • caring

  • respect

  • honesty


Slide7 l.jpg

Are all parties operating under the same understanding of the rules of engagement?


Slide8 l.jpg

Does a specific action follow a principle of conduct that is applicable to all comparable situations?


Slide9 l.jpg

Does this action evidence authentic concern for the legitimate interests of others?


Slide10 l.jpg

Does this action demonstrate due consideration for the dignity and rights of others?


Slide11 l.jpg

Is this decision and the process leading to it straight-forward and forthright?


Slide12 l.jpg

…these principles do not provide a comprehensive ethical framework...

…for use when managers and leaders engage in the decision-making process.


An executive ethical decision making process barnard 1968 l.jpg
An executive ethical decision-making process (Barnard, elements embedded in an ethical decision...1968)...

1. Recognize that people come to organizations with personal motives.

2. Direct efforts to induce cooperation towards a common effort.

3. Uphold the organizational purpose.

4. Design impersonal goals that translate the organization’s purpose into meaningful projects.


Questions for ethical decision making lax sebenius 1986 l.jpg
Questions for ethical decision making (Lax & Sebenius, 1986)...

  • Are the rules understood and accepted?

…in poker, for example, bluffing is a defined part of the game


Slide15 l.jpg

…it is highly probable that an important decision will be “spun” in ways that distort what managers and leaders intend


Slide16 l.jpg

…if it impacted you?

…if it impacted members of your family?


Slide17 l.jpg

…should children be trained to act this way?

…should people in organizations behave this way?

…should society be organized this way?


Slide18 l.jpg

…what are the pro’s and con’s associated with each alternative?

…can differences be negotiated so that the decision rests on a firmer ethical ground?


Ethics is inquiry into the right thing and acting conversant with it l.jpg
Ethics is “inquiry into the public forum?right thing” and acting conversant with it...

When managers and leaders endeavor to inquire into the right thing...

…“we are inquiring not in order to know what virtue is but in order to become good”

…neither “to fall under any art or precept… but to consider what is appropriate to the occasion” (Aristotle, Ethics II.2, p. 183)


A paradigm for ethical decision making aristotle ethics iii 2 5 l.jpg
A paradigm for ethical decision making (Aristotle, public forum?Ethics III.2-5)...

  • quantitative and qualitative factual data that describe “what is truly the case”

knowledge of the good

  • abstract, theoretical concepts identifying “the truly good”

For managers and leaders, the primary sources of knowledge are research and experience.


Slide21 l.jpg

techniques that foster the good

  • repertoires honed through experience

For managers and leaders, techniques are learned in formal and informal apprenticeships where reflection on practice facilitates the development of expertise.


Slide22 l.jpg

In light of what the good requires public forum?:

  • deliberation concerning the facts and ideas of this case

practice

  • deliberation concerning the techniques that will foster the good


Aristotle s ethical decision making paradigm l.jpg
Aristotle’s ethical decision-making paradigm... public forum?

ideas concerning what is good, proper, and just

knowledge

a practical judgment about what must be done in this situation, given what theory and best practice suggest

practice

discrete skills to achieve what is good, proper, and just

techniques


For aristotle ethical practice is not l.jpg
For Aristotle, ethical practice is public forum?not...

  • dictating to others what the good is and what they ought to do

  • mindlessly enacting routines inculcated in training programs


For aristotle ethical practice is l.jpg
For Aristotle, ethical practice is... public forum?

  • being deliberate by integrating a rational principle with a proven technique through discursive thought (ratiocination)

  • responding:

  • to the right person

  • at the right time

  • to the right extent

  • in the right way


Slide26 l.jpg

and, thus... public forum?

  • evidencing a virtuous character revealed in practical wisdom when making decisions

  • bearing responsibility for the choices made

  • inculcating virtue throughout the organization as a shared purpose


Slide27 l.jpg

For Aristotle, then, it is not so much public forum?what managers or leaders do that is crucial for ethical decision making...

...what is crucial is why managers or leaders do what they do

...and the quality of character revealed in very practical decisions.


Slide28 l.jpg

“…that is not for everyone, nor is it easy; wherefore goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

Aristotle, Ethics, II.9


Seven ethical virtues l.jpg
Seven ethical virtues... goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

  • courage

  • anger

  • liberality

  • truth

  • magnificence

  • indignation

  • pride


Slide30 l.jpg

COURAGE goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

…the quality of being fearless or brave when facing and dealing with anything recognized as dangerous, difficult, or painful


Slide31 l.jpg

LIBERALITY goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

…the noble quality whereby one is generous in thought and evidences the absence of prejudice and partiality when considering substantive matters


Slide32 l.jpg

MAGNIFICENCE goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

…the condition or quality of grandeur, splendor, and glory uplifting the human spirit


Slide33 l.jpg

PRIDE goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

…the quality, state, and behavior evidencing an accurate perception of one’s dignity and worth


Slide34 l.jpg

ANGER goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

…the feeling engendered by a real or supposed injury for which one seeks satisfaction


Slide35 l.jpg

TRUTH goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

…the quality or state of sincerity, genuineness, honesty, trustworthiness, and loyalty emerging when one acts in accord with verified experience, facts, or reality


Slide36 l.jpg

INDIGNATION goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

…the contempt, disgust, and abhorrence caused by the disapproval of something mean, disgraceful, or unjust


Aristotle s theory of the golden mean l.jpg
Aristotle’s theory of the “Golden Mean”... goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

  • A virtue is a mean, delicate to achieve...

…found somewhere between an excess (a positive vice)

…and a deficiency (a negative vice)

…which reflects the true character of the person making the decision


Slide38 l.jpg

Manager/Leader Virtue: goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

COURAGE

confidence

fear

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess


Slide39 l.jpg


Slide40 l.jpg

Manager/Leader Virtue: of the intellect wherein the defect of paralyzing fear and the excess of exuberant confidence are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.

LIBERALITY

prodigality

meanness

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess


Slide41 l.jpg


Slide42 l.jpg

Manager/Leader Virtue: judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of meanness and the excess of prodigality are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.

MAGNIFICENCE

vulgarity

niggardliness

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess


Slide43 l.jpg


Slide44 l.jpg

Manager/Leader Virtue: judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of niggardliness and the excess of vulgarity are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.

PRIDE

vanity

humility

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess


Slide45 l.jpg


Slide46 l.jpg

Manager/Leader Virtue: the intellect wherein the defect of humility and the excess of vanity are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.

ANGER

irascibility

equanimity

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess


Slide47 l.jpg


Slide48 l.jpg

Manager/Leader Virtue: the intellect wherein the defect of equanimity and the excess of irascibility are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.

TRUTH

boasting

modesty

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess


Slide49 l.jpg


Slide50 l.jpg

Manager/Leader Virtue: the intellect wherein the defect of modesty and the excess of envy are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.

INDIGNATION

envy

spite

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess


Slide51 l.jpg


A virtue based process of ethical decision making l.jpg
A virtue-based process of ethical decision making... judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of spite and the excess of envy are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.

  • Enables managers and leaders...

...to stand for something when people prefer that managers and leaders stand for everything

...to do right things when people prefer that managers and leaders do things right


Integrating reflective practice and ethical decision making l.jpg
Integrating reflective practice and ethical decision making...

  • Reflective practice and ethical decision making require intellectual exercise and discipline

…reflective practice focuses upon practice episodes to ascertain how one’s beliefs and assumptions as well as one’s background and experiences impact organizational functioning

...ethical decision making endeavors to promote the good amidst conflicting and contradictory choices


The concept l.jpg
The concept... making...

  • reflective practice

…the intellectual exercise through which managers and leaders focus upon events in order to ascertain how one’s beliefs and assumptions as well as one’s background and experiences impact organizational functioning

Reflective practice inculcates the intellectual discipline needed to discern “what is” in practice episodes as well as to engage in the self-growth necessary if one is to manage and lead others.


Reflective practice l.jpg
Reflective practice... making...

  • is constructed on the reality that professional knowledge is different from scientific knowledge

  • accounts for the fact that there are no infallibly efficacious theories or skills to manage and lead human organizations

Reflective practice requires managers and leaders to confront ill-defined, unique, and changing problems as managers and leaders decide on courses of action.


The reflective practice model l.jpg
The reflective practice model... making...

antecedents

theories of practice

practice episodes

cultural milieu

mindscapes

intentions

theoretical knowledge

action platforms

actions

realities

craft knowledge

self knowledge

critical knowledge


Slide57 l.jpg

…the intellectual exercise through which managers and leaders render practical judgments of the intellect about what ought to be the case, given what is, so as to promote the good

Ethical decision making inculcates the virtues needed for managers and leaders to engage others in a collaborative toward attaining what ought to be the case.


Aristotle s ethical decision making paradigm58 l.jpg
Aristotle’s ethical decision-making paradigm... making...

ideas concerning what is good, proper, and just

knowledge

a practical judgment about what must be done in this situation, given what theory and best practice suggest

practice

discrete skills to achieve what is good, proper, and just

techniques


Reframing ethical decision making l.jpg
Reframing ethical decision making... making...

  • Reframingethical decision making requires intellectual exercise and discipline

  • Reframing uses metaphors to focus upon organizations in order to ascertain how various beliefs and assumptions as well as backgrounds and experiences impact organizational functioning

  • Ethical decision making navigates a pathway toward the good amidst the conflicting and contradictory choices available






Using ethical decision making l.jpg
Using ethical decision making... point of view...

…virtuous

…reflective

effective managers and leaders are

…wise

…decisive

…“what ought to be” given “what is”

whose primary concerns are

…doing right things

…balancing the common and collective good


Abusing ethical decision making l.jpg
Abusing ethical decision making... point of view...

…implement ideas mindlessly

ineffective managers and leaders

…deny responsibility

…point the finger of blame at others

…doing things right

whose primary concerns are

…self-protection

…one’s desires and wishes


Ethical decision making l.jpg
Ethical decision making... point of view...

…is not a learned behavior or lifestyle worn like a set of clothes, but...

seeking constantly to do what is right and necessary in the system

 a matter of focus:

devoting inordinate amounts of time to doing right things

a matter of time:

putting one’s whole psyche, energy, and conviction into it

a matter of feeling:


This module has focused on l.jpg
This module has focused on... point of view...

ethical decision making and how managers and leaders can utilize it in practice episodes...


Slide68 l.jpg

ETHICAL DECISION MAKING point of view...

“By acting virtuously in our transactions with other human beings we become virtuous or unvirtuous. The states of character arise out of activity. It makes no small difference, then, whether we form habits of one kind or another from our very youth; it makes a great difference, or rather, all the difference.”

Aristotle, Ethics, II.1, p. 183


Slide69 l.jpg

Although existing in a pluralistic and secular world, organizations cannot impose a particular religious, moral, political, or social ethical framework upon employees...

…managers and leaders, however, can and should make their purpose clear, hold subordinates accountable, and engage them in dialogue about the ethical choices that arise in practice.


Slide70 l.jpg

The outcome of ethical practice is the gradual transformation of an impersonal workplace into a viable community of people...

...who respect and recognize in one another the virtues that make being human and contributing to a cooperative endeavor meaningful.

Work, then, is not simply “a job” but an opportunity to learn about and engage in living a truly good life.


The next module will focus on l.jpg
The next module will focus on... transformation of an impersonal workplace into a viable community of people...

scenario building

for successful organizational change

...and how managers and leaders use frame analysis to forge a pathway that improves organizational functioning.


References l.jpg
References transformation of an impersonal workplace into a viable community of people...

  • Aristotle. (1958). The Nicomachean ethics (W. D. Ross, Trans.). In J. D. Kaplan (Ed.), The pocket Aristotle (pp. 158-274). New York: Simon & Schuster.

  • Barnard, C. I. (1938/1968). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1997). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • Etzioni, A. (1975). A comparative analysis of complex organizations. New York: Free Press.


References73 l.jpg
References transformation of an impersonal workplace into a viable community of people...

  • Lax, D. A., & Sebenius, J. K. (1986). The manager as negotiator. New York: Free Press.

  • Sergiovanni, T. J. (1989). Informing professional practice in educational administration. Journal of Educational Administration, 27(2), p. 186.


ad