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CP Lesson Two – Exclusionary Rule. ER – Origins and Nature Weeks v. US Rationales ER Incorporation Cases Exceptions to the ER Good Faith Fruit of the Poisonous Tree and Purged Taint Independent Source Inevitable Discovery Impeachment Collateral use ER Policy and Alternatives.

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cp lesson two exclusionary rule
CP Lesson Two – Exclusionary Rule
  • ER – Origins and Nature
    • Weeks v. US
    • Rationales
  • ER Incorporation Cases
  • Exceptions to the ER
    • Good Faith
    • Fruit of the Poisonous Tree and Purged Taint
    • Independent Source
    • Inevitable Discovery
    • Impeachment
    • Collateral use
  • ER Policy and Alternatives
er exceptions fruit of the poisonous tree and purged taint exception
ER Exceptions – Fruit of the Poisonous Tree and Purged Taint Exception
  • Fruit of the Poisonous Tree
    • Primary evidence = tree
    • Secondary evidence = fruit
  • Purged Taint Exception
    • Occurs when defendant’s act dissipates the taint of initial illegality
  • Case – Wong Sun v. US (1963)
slide3

Illegal Police Act – E.g. searching without warrant or probable cause. This bars admission of ....

Evidence illegally obtained – it’s not admissible. E.g. involuntary confession.

Evidence obtained from illegally obtained evidence. This is fruit of the poisonous tree.

Purged Taint Exception– Defendant’s subsequent voluntary act that dissipates taint of initial illegality

er exceptions independent source
ER Exceptions – Independent Source
  • Evidence admissible if it was obtained from independent source not connected with illegal action
  • Murray v. US (1988)
  • Difference b/w independent source and purged taint
er exception inevitable discovery
ER Exception – Inevitable Discovery
  • Evidence admissible if police would have found it anyway by lawful means
  • Nix v Williams (1984) (aka Williams II)
  • Comment: police policy strengthens case
er exception impeachment
ER Exception - Impeachment
  • Illegally obtained (non-Miranda) statement can be used to impeach credibility
  • Harris v. New York (1971)
  • Other Collateral uses of illegally obtained evidence
    • Grand jury
    • Deportation
    • Sentencing
    • Parole, others….
exclusionary rule future and policy
Exclusionary Rule – Future and Policy
  • Controversial
  • Research on ER
  • Suggested Alternatives
er origin and nature
ER – Origin and Nature
  • BOR - No built in enforcement mechanism
  • Weeks v. US (1914) – Federal cases
  • ER Rationales
    • Constitutional Rationale
    • Judicial Integrity Rationale
    • Deterrence Rationale
  • Silver Platter Doctrine – eliminated in Elkins v. US (1960)
er incorporation cases
ER Incorporation Cases
  • Wolf v. Colorado (1949)
    • Do the 4th and ER go together?
  • Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
    • A right w/out a remedy?
    • States weigh in…
    • Is the Court a majoritarian institution?
er exceptions good faith rule
ER Exceptions – Good Faith Rule
  • Political Backdrop of ER change
  • US v. Leon (1984)
    • Purpose
    • Standard
  • Extensions of Leon
    • Illinois v. Krull (1987)
    • Arizona v. Evans (1995)
  • Limitations on Leon
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