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CP Lesson Two – Exclusionary Rule. ER – Origins and Nature Weeks v. US Rationales ER Incorporation Cases Exceptions to the ER Good Faith Fruit of the Poisonous Tree and Purged Taint Independent Source Inevitable Discovery Impeachment Collateral use ER Policy and Alternatives.

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CP Lesson Two – Exclusionary Rule

  • ER – Origins and Nature

    • Weeks v. US

    • Rationales

  • ER Incorporation Cases

  • Exceptions to the ER

    • Good Faith

    • Fruit of the Poisonous Tree and Purged Taint

    • Independent Source

    • Inevitable Discovery

    • Impeachment

    • Collateral use

  • ER Policy and Alternatives


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ER Exceptions – Fruit of the Poisonous Tree and Purged Taint Exception

  • Fruit of the Poisonous Tree

    • Primary evidence = tree

    • Secondary evidence = fruit

  • Purged Taint Exception

    • Occurs when defendant’s act dissipates the taint of initial illegality

  • Case – Wong Sun v. US (1963)


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Illegal Police Act – E.g. searching without warrant or probable cause. This bars admission of ....

Evidence illegally obtained – it’s not admissible. E.g. involuntary confession.

Evidence obtained from illegally obtained evidence. This is fruit of the poisonous tree.

Purged Taint Exception– Defendant’s subsequent voluntary act that dissipates taint of initial illegality


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ER Exceptions – Independent Source probable cause. This bars admission of ....

  • Evidence admissible if it was obtained from independent source not connected with illegal action

  • Murray v. US (1988)

  • Difference b/w independent source and purged taint


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ER Exception – Inevitable Discovery probable cause. This bars admission of ....

  • Evidence admissible if police would have found it anyway by lawful means

  • Nix v Williams (1984) (aka Williams II)

  • Comment: police policy strengthens case


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ER Exception - Impeachment probable cause. This bars admission of ....

  • Illegally obtained (non-Miranda) statement can be used to impeach credibility

  • Harris v. New York (1971)

  • Other Collateral uses of illegally obtained evidence

    • Grand jury

    • Deportation

    • Sentencing

    • Parole, others….


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Exclusionary Rule – Future and Policy probable cause. This bars admission of ....

  • Controversial

  • Research on ER

  • Suggested Alternatives


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ER – Origin and Nature probable cause. This bars admission of ....

  • BOR - No built in enforcement mechanism

  • Weeks v. US (1914) – Federal cases

  • ER Rationales

    • Constitutional Rationale

    • Judicial Integrity Rationale

    • Deterrence Rationale

  • Silver Platter Doctrine – eliminated in Elkins v. US (1960)


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ER Incorporation Cases probable cause. This bars admission of ....

  • Wolf v. Colorado (1949)

    • Do the 4th and ER go together?

  • Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

    • A right w/out a remedy?

    • States weigh in…

    • Is the Court a majoritarian institution?


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ER Exceptions – Good Faith Rule probable cause. This bars admission of ....

  • Political Backdrop of ER change

  • US v. Leon (1984)

    • Purpose

    • Standard

  • Extensions of Leon

    • Illinois v. Krull (1987)

    • Arizona v. Evans (1995)

  • Limitations on Leon


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