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Copyright and plagiarism -- teaching ethics to tomorrow's citizens. Carol Simpson, Ed.D. University of North Texas. This program includes copyright protected material used under the Fair Use guidelines of US Copyright Law. Further use is prohibited. Relax. Let’s talk. An ethical basis.

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Copyright and plagiarism teaching ethics to tomorrow s citizens l.jpg

Copyright and plagiarism -- teaching ethics to tomorrow's citizens

Carol Simpson, Ed.D.University of North Texas

This program includes copyright protected material used under the Fair Use guidelines of US Copyright Law. Further use is prohibited.


Relax l.jpg

Relax

Let’s talk


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An ethical basis

  • We live our lives ethically.

    • As children, mother establishes right and wrong


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Ethics from mom

-- Anita Renfroe, Total Momsense


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An ethical basis

  • We live our lives ethically.

    • As children, mother establishes right and wrong

  • Not moral or immoral

  • Not legal or illegal

  • “Ethical” takes into account the greater good, and the integrity of the profession or the job


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Why is ethics important in a school context?

  • 71% of students don’t think through consequences and plan ahead

  • 65% don’t respect values of people from other races and cultures

  • 76% don’t believe their teachers really care about them.

The Search Institute


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Whose ethics?

  • Religious ethics

  • Personal ethics

  • Situational ethics

  • Professional ethics


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What is the climate re: ethics?

  • Students complain that pressure for grades force them to cheat

  • Teachers complain that pressure for standardized test results or college acceptances force them to cut ethical corners

  • Faculty may feel they are only the enforcers


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What is affected by ethics?

  • Plagiarism

    • Students: cutting/pasting into homework

    • Faculty: taking work from workbooks, professional books, etc.

  • Copyright

    • Students: adapting art into posters

    • Faculty: making copies of a cartoon for each teacher’s mailbox

  • Cheating


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The more competitive the school, the more cheating goes on


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The brighter the students, the more they can get away with plagiarism.

Dr. Joy McGregor


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Plagiarism

  • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own

  • to use (another's production) without crediting the source

  • to commit literary theft

  • to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.

    - Plagiarism.org (quotingMerriam-Webster Online)


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A Plagiarism Statement

Plagiarism is copying: retyping, cutting and pasting, or paraphrasing. All students in this course are warned as follows:

  • Do not quote or paraphrase published sources, including assigned readings and Web-based sources, without explicit reference to the original work. Credit the source using appropriate citation style according to the required academic style manual.

  • Do not insert parts of class lectures, online modules, or tutorials, including examples, into your own work.

  • Do not insert parts of previous students' work into your own work. The previous students have given written permission for their work to be displayed for illustrative purposes only.


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Plagiarism Statement, cont.

  • Do not insert parts of current students' work into your own work. That student trusts you to respect his/her intellectual product.

  • Do not use portions of your own work without citation. If the work was previously submitted for credit in another class, you must have written permission from the teacher of that class and the instructor in this class to use the material.

  • You are expected to study and learn from the materials provided, then to use your own words in your assignments, or clearly credit sources using appropriate citation style.

  • It is wrong to blindly copy another person's intellectual content or syntax. It is particularly shortsighted--and glaringly obvious--when a student copies another student's errors.

  • You do not have to police every word you write, just be aware of your sources. It is not necessary to credit sources for definitions of basic concepts that are general knowledge in the field, but it is wise to reword them.


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Why do students plagiarize?

  • Nervousness and insecurity

  • Ignorance about proper citation

  • Deliberate effort to deceive

-- Plagiarism.com


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Many types of plagiarism

  • turning in someone else's work as your own

  • copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit

  • failing to put a quotation in quotation marks

  • giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation

  • changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit (also called “tracking”)

  • copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not

    - Plagiarism.org


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Turning in someone else's work

  • How to identify

    • Just doesn’t sound right

    • Use web search engine to locate unique phrases that may be out of character

    • Use a plagiarism detector

  • What to do

    • This is cheating. Consult student code of conduct


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Copying words or ideas without giving credit

  • How to identify

    • Teacher expertise

    • Check Works Cited/Bibliography against paper

    • Use web search engine to locate unique phrases that may be out of character

    • Use a plagiarism detector

  • What to do

    • Assess cause


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Failing to identify quotations

  • How to identify

    • Just doesn’t sound like student work

    • Use web search engine to locate unique phrases that may be out of character

    • Use a plagiarism detector

  • What to do

    • Assess cause

      • Ignorance?

      • Deliberate?


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Incorrect information about a quotation

  • How to identify

    • Most difficult task

      • There is student attempt to attribute

    • Plagiarism detector

  • What to do?

    • Assess cause

      • Ignorance?

      • Deliberate?


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Tracking

  • How to identify

    • Plagiarism detector

  • What to do

    • Identify cause

      • Ignorance?

      • Deliberate?

    • Caution

      • Detector error


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Avoiding tracking

Anything taken directly (or only loosely paraphrased) from literature or a website must be within quotation marks. Changing a word or two does not remove the requirement to put information in quotation marks. For example:

"Product XYZ demonstrate(s) the ... concept of [advanced] nuclear physics."


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A source makes up the majority of the assignment

  • Copyright issues

    • Is the use within the fair use guidelines/fair use four factor test?

  • Pedagogical issues

    • What was the purpose of the assignment? Should there be some original analysis or synthesis?


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Addressing Plagiarism

  • Students

    • “plagiarism-proof” assignments

    • Demand documentation

    • Verify documentation (via Turnitin.com or DocCop.com <short sections only>)

    • Check at multiple stages in the process

  • Faculty

    • Model documentation

    • Acknowledge sources (on web pages, handouts, etc.)


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Original

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Sentences in the book Joe Blow: His Life and Times by Jay Scrivener

Student work

“Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.” (Scrivener, 2006)

Good documentation or not?


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GOOD!

Full quote is in quotation marks, followed by citation to Joe Blow: His Life and Times.


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Good documentation or not?

Good documentation or not?

Original

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Student work

According to Scrivener, Blow “often walked down the road whistling and singing.”99


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GOOD!

Partial quote is inside quotation marks, followed by citation. Partial quote is not misleading.


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Student work

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Original

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Good Documentation or Not?


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NOT

It is plagiarism to quote an author’s exact words or to paraphrase them closely without both quotation marks and proper citation.


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Student work

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.99

Original

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Good Documentation or Not?


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NOT

These are Scrivener’s exact words. It is plagiarism to use them without indicating explicitly that it is a quote (by using quotation marks or block quotation for longer passages) EVEN if you give credit to the author.


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Student work

Joe Blow seemed like “a happy man,” the kind who enjoyed “whistling and singing.”99

Original

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Good Documentation or Not?


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GOOD!

Two partial quotes are each inside quotation marks; nonquoted material is outside quotation marks. Citation follows the sentence.


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Student work

Joe Blow was a happy man and often walked down the road singing and whistling.

Original

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Good Documentation or Not?


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NOT

Although the words are not exactly the author’s, they are very similar. (The words “singing” and “whistling” are simply reversed.) Either use exact quote or paraphrase in ways that are clearly different from the author’s wording.


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Student work

Joe appeared happy and enjoyed whistling and singing to himself.99

Original

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Good Documentation or Not?


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GOOD!

This paraphrase is fine. It’s not too close to Scrivener’s original wording. The citation acknowledges the source.


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Student work

Joe Blow was a happy man.

Original

Joe Blow was a happy man, who often walked down the road whistling and singing.

Good Documentation or Not?


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NOT!

Two problems here:

It is an exact quote so it should be quoted and cited.

Even if the quote were modified slightly, Scrivener should still be cited because it is his personal judgment (and not a simple fact) that Joe Blow is happy.


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How did you do?

Examples quoted from: Charles Lipson, Doing honest work in college, Univ. of Chicago Press, 2004.


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Copyright

  • Students have wide latitude (more than teachers)

  • May overlap plagiarism

  • Each situation is highly fact-specific, so use caution.


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Addressing copyright issues

  • Students

    • CAN make a copy of an article, chapter, etc. for personal use

    • CAN use material under multimedia guidelines in PowerPoint, etc.

    • * see documents on www.carolsimpson.com

  • Faculty

    • Can make single copy for use in teaching

    • Acknowledge source


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Cheating – who does it?

  • 74% of students cheat

  • Students in private religious schools are

    • more likely to cheat (78%),

    • more likely to lie to teachers (86% v. 81%)

  • Students in athletics more likely to cheat (78% v 73%)

  • Gender, student leadership, and personal religious convictions made no difference

  • BUT 93% disagreed with the statement, “My parents would rather I cheat than get bad grades.”

Josephson Institute of Ethics - 2002


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How they cheat and how to defeat them

  • Electronic devices – know how they work

  • Web sites – know which ones

  • Computer network – make students take tests in computer lab

  • Documentation – do research online

  • Software solutions


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Addressing cheating issues

  • Students

    • Student code of conduct

    • “Vicarious” penalties

    • Control cheating technologies

  • Faculty

    • Investigate the amount of pressure on students

    • Emphasize process over product

    • What models are there?

    • Don’t “go along with the joke” re: cheating businessmen, politicians, etc.


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Code of Conduct Development

  • Explains school culture

  • Gives explicit guidance for individual behavior

  • Clarifies roles and responsibilities of school, student, staff

-- NoodleTools


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Contents of a Code of Conduct

  • Philosophy or Statement of Principles

  • Ownership of problem

  • Define concepts

  • Identify behaviors addressed

  • Detail discipline response

  • Detail educational program

-- NoodleTools


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Integrating ethics

Start with these resources:

  • Joyce Valenza’s ethics page at http://www.sdst.org/shs/library/infolitles.html#Ethics

  • Doug Johnson’s book: Learning Right From Wrong inthe Digital Age (Linworth)

  • David Warlick’s 2¢ Worth: http://davidwarlick.com/2cents/2006/08/23/

    getting-right-down-to-it/

  • Lathrop & Foss: Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era (LU)


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There are really only two important points when it comes to ethics. The first is a standard to follow. The second is the will to follow it.

-- John Maxwell


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“Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants” – Omar Bradley


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Professional Ethics

Walking the Talk


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Codes of ethics

  • Hippocratic writings and Hippocratic oath – Medicine

    • Model for many professions

    • One of the oldest professional codes

  • Rules of conduct for military officers existed earlier, but they were frequently ignored.

    • Roman

    • Japanese Samauri


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The adoption of a code is significant for the professionalization of an occupational group, because it is one of the external hallmarks testifying to the claim that the group recognizes an obligation to society that transcends mere economic self-interest.

– Heinz Luegenbiehl


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Code of ethics for nonprofit and philanthropic organizations

  • Statement of values

    • Commitment to public good

    • Accountability to the public

    • Commitment beyond the law

    • Respect for worth and dignity of individuals

    • Inclusiveness and social justice

    • Respect for pluralism and diversity

    • Transparency, integrity, and honesty

    • Responsible stewardship of resources

    • Commitment to excellence and maintaining the public trust.


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What is in a code of ethics?

  • Purpose

    • To regulate or to inspire

    • To guide or to mandate

  • Tied to organization’s values

    • Section of aspirations

    • Section of rules or principles

  • Enforcement

  • Ordered importance


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Ethics in school librarianship

  • Governed by three organizations

    • Current national standards co-authored by ALA/AASL and AECT, but ISTE is emerging as a driving force.

  • Each organization has its own code of ethics, and each has different perspectives of the field


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Activity

You have three Codes of Ethics:

ALA

AECT

ISTE

Compare the three Codes to see where there is overlap and where one represents a unique perspective.

Time for activity: 10 minutes


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Ethical scenarios

Look at the following ethical scenarios and see which of the ethical codes may come into play.

Make notes as each one plays.

Note: these are educators and students, not actors. Thanks to the administration and staff of Mesquite High School for allowing these clips.


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Scenario 1

What ethical conflicts do you see here?

What is the appropriate choice, ethically?

Who should make that choice?


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Scenario 2

What is the ethical dilemma here?

What portions of the codes are addressed?

Who should take responsibility?

What other ethical conflicts do you see?


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Scenario 3

What ethical conflicts do you see here?

Are there multiple codes of ethics affected here?

Which should take precedence?


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Scenario 4

What ethical conflicts do you see here?

Whose problem is it, and whose ethics are involved?

Should the resolution be specific or global?


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Reading about ethics is about as likely to improve one’s behavior as reading about sports is to make one an athlete.

-- Mason Cooley


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Maxwell’s take

Asking the question, “How would I like to be treated in this situation?” is an integrity guideline for ANY situation.

The answer is: The Golden Rule

-- John Maxwell, There’s no such thing as business ethics


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In literature, as in ethics, there is danger, as well as glory, in being subtle.

-- Charles Baudelaire


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Take a test

  • Apply the Golden Rule to the following scenarios. Some may be very subtle.

  • Jot down your assessment, and see if you can find a statement in one of the codes of ethics to support your stance.


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The most powerful lessons about ethics and morality do not come from school discussions or classes in character building. They come from family life where people treat one another with respect, consideration, and love.

-- Neil Kurshan


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Test item #1

How does the Golden Rule apply?

What aspects of the ALA, AECT or ISTE Codes of Ethics apply here?


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Test item #2

  • How does the Golden Rule apply?

  • What aspects of the ALA, ISTE, and AECT Codes of Ethics apply here?


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The golden mean in ethics, as in physics, is the centre of the system and that about which all revolve…

-- Henry David Thoreau


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Test item #3

  • How does the Golden Rule apply?

  • What aspects of the ALA, ISTE, and AECT Codes of Ethics apply here?


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Test item #4

  • How does the Golden Rule apply?

  • What aspects of the ALA, ISTE, and AECT Codes of Ethics apply here?


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Ethics is not definable, is not implementable, because it is not conscious; it involves not only our thinking, but also our feeling.

-- Valdemar W. Setzer


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Test item #5

  • How does the Golden Rule apply?

  • What aspects of the ALA, ISTE, and AECT Codes of Ethics apply here?


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Test item #6

  • How does the Golden Rule apply?

  • What aspects of the ALA, ISTE, and AECT Codes of Ethics apply here?


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Ethics is about how we meet the challenge of doing the right thing when that will cost more than we want to pay.

– The Josephson Institute of Ethics


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Test item #7

  • How does the Golden Rule apply?

  • What aspects of the ALA, ISTE, and AECT Codes of Ethics apply here?


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Test item #8

  • How does the Golden Rule apply?

  • What aspects of the ALA, ISTE, and AECT Codes of Ethics apply here?


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Even concepts of right and wrong, good or bad, good or bad morals and ethics are only opinions, for what may be good in one case may be a disaster in another.

-- Sidney Madwed


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What issues did you find?

  • Student work on Web

    • Golden rule? ALA – IV; AECT – 3-8

  • Library intern

    • Golden rule? ALA – VIII; AECT - ???

  • R-rated movies

    • Golden rule? ALA – II; AECT – 1-5

  • Future librarian

    • Golden rule? ALA – VIII; AECT - ???


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What issues did you find?

  • Teacher inquiring about student

    • Golden rule? ALA – III; AECT – 1-2, 1-4

  • Cataloging shortcuts

    • Golden rule? ALA – I; AECT – 1-5??

  • Student inquiry re: coverups

    • Golden rule? ALA – I; AECT – 1-1

  • Prayer list

    • Golden rule? ALA – VII; AECT – 2-1


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How did you do?

“Ethics entails action; it is not just a topic to mull or debate.”

The Golden Rule can be applied to many of the scenarios, but sometimes the Code of Ethics is more specific.

Does the Code of Ethics follow the Golden Rule?


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How close are we? ALA:

  • Easy to use resources, access to what I feel I need, accurate information

  • My beliefs are represented, along with all others

  • My privacy is respected

  • My property rights are respected

  • My health and welfare are respected

  • No one takes advantage of me

  • No one forces their beliefs on me

  • New professionals are encouraged


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How close are we? AECT - 1:

  • I can learn what I want, how I want

  • My opinions are respected, along with those of others

  • I can participate in all available programs

  • My privacy is protected

  • Materials are selected with care

  • My well-being is protected

  • My self-worth is valued


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How close are we? AECT – 2:

  • Opinions are not forced on me

  • I am given truthful information

  • No one takes financial advantage

  • No one will cheat me

  • My health and the welfare of the planet are considered.


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How close are we? AECT – 3:

  • We respect our colleagues

  • We avoid unfair competition

  • I will not be cheated by my association.

  • I will learn all I can, and share what I know.

  • I will tell the truth and give credit for what others do

  • Only those qualified will assist me

  • I will be advised of possible legal problems

  • I will behave ethically.


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Where do we go from here?

“To know what is right and not do it is the worst cowardice.” -- Confucius

  • Decisions, not conditions, determine your ethics

  • Wrong decisions leave scars

  • The more people involved, the more pressure for conformity

  • Inaction is also a decision

-- John C. Maxwell


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The bottom line

  • No one can make you be ethical

  • Your ethics (or lack of it) shapes your person (and your profession) by providing an image by which others see you (and your colleagues)

  • People are watching what you do

  • You represent a unique point of view


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What can you do?

  • Model ethics

  • Talk about ethics

  • Repeat organizational stories that promote ethical behavior

  • Note ethical behavior on performance evaluations

  • Address the topic often, formally and informally. Demystify it.


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Recommendations

  • Read the Codes of Ethics

  • Assess what they mean for your professional practice and student conduct

  • Anticipate activities that are likely to challenge the precepts and plan ahead for a response.

    • Role play with others until the words feel right

  • Understand that your beliefs/ethics may not always be popular, but they deserve hearing and respect.


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Questions?

Email: [email protected]


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