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Computational Challenges for Modeling and Simulation. Michael Macedonia Chief Technology Officer, US Army Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation ( PEO STRI). Real-time Computational Challenges for Computer Generated Forces (CGF).

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Computational Challenges for Modeling and Simulation

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Computational challenges for modeling and simulation l.jpg

Computational Challenges for Modeling and Simulation

Michael Macedonia

Chief Technology Officer, US Army Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation ( PEO STRI)


Real time computational challenges for computer generated forces cgf l.jpg

Real-time Computational Challenges for Computer Generated Forces (CGF)

Need to provide interactive, real-time terrain reasoning for Computer Generated Forces given:

  • Extremely dense terrain databases (e.g. Baku, NYC, Baghdad)

  • Thousand of simulated entities (size of Army Unit of Action)

  • Simulation of long-range and novel sensors

  • Must fit on Future Combat System platforms (no Beowulf clusters allowed)

Bottomline: Traditional CPU architecture and Moore’s law are not enough to achieve capability in this decade.


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Best algorithms are O(N2 ) where N = objects/entities in the CGF database (e.g., sensors, platforms, buildings, people)

40% to 80% of CGF CPU time is required for battalion-level scenarios spent in sensing functions:

Collision detection

Line of sight computation

Real-time Terrain Algorithms for Computer Generated Forces


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Purpose of LOS Algorithms

  • Simulated LOS for Models and Simulations

  • Position Sensors to Maximum Visibility

  • Position Targets to Minimize Visibility

  • Basically, we need to answer the question:

  • Can a sensor at location A see a Target at

  • location B?

Courtesy Danny Champion, TRAC


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Algorithm Considerations

  • Coordinate System (UTM or Lat/Long or Geocentric)?

  • Curved or Flat Earth or Radar LOS?

  • How is sensor/target elevations determined?

  • How are features (vegetation/urban) treated?

  • How is LOS blocked? (slope or calculated elevation)

  • Terrain Resolution and its effects on LOS

  • Lower Resolution – faster, less accurate

  • Higher Resolution – slower, more accurate

  • How should the algorithm be implemented?

  • Which algorithms work best with my hardware?

  • Precision, Precision, Precision

Courtesy Danny Champion, TRAC


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Triangular Irregular Network


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Line-of-Sight

Point-to-Point

Masked Area Plot or

Viewshed

Point-to-Multipoint

Current Army Visibility Products

Source: Doug Caldwell Topographic Engineering Center


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TIREM Propagation Model


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A Familiar Curve

TRAC WSR LOS Study 1995


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A Pathological Example


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Real World Example: Falling Performance of CCTT CGF


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Why GPU/Streaming ?

Source: Anselmo Lastra


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