Classification PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Classification. FamilyGenusSpecies. Micrococcaceae. Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. S. aureusS. saprophyticusS. epidermidisM. luteus. more than 20 species. Gram-Positive Cocci. Enterococcus (Group D CHO) ? hemolytic (? or ?)Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium. FAMILY Micrococcaceae (catalase positive)Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureusCoag.-neg. Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. saprophyticus.

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3. Classification Family Genus Species

15. Cell-Associated Virulence Factors Capsule or slime layer (glycocalyx) Peptidoglycan (PG) Teichoic acid is covalently linked to PG and is species specific: S. aureus ribitol teichoic acid (polysaccharide A) S. epidermidis glycerol teichoic acid (polysaccharide B) Protein A is covalently linked to PG Clumping factor (bound coagulase)

16. Virulence Factors Extracellular Enzymes Coagulases (bound or free) Antigenic Hyaluronidase “spreading factor” of S. aureus Nuclease Cleaves DNA and RNA in S. aureus Protease Staphylokinase (fibrinolysin) Lipases Esterases

17. Virulence Factors: Exotoxins Cytolytic (cytotoxins; cytolysins) Alpha toxin - hemolysin Reacts with RBCs Beta toxin Sphingomyelinase Gamma toxin Hemolytic activity Delta toxin Cytopathic for: RBCs Macrophages Lymphocytes Neutrophils Platelets Enterotoxic activity Leukocidin

18. Enterotoxin Exfoliative toxin (epidermolytic toxin) Pyrogenic exotoxins

19. Pathogenesis Pass skin – first line of defense Benign infection Phagocytosis Antibody Inflammatory response Chronic infections Delayed hypersensitivity

20. Clinical Manifestations/Disease SKIN folliculitis boils (furuncles) carbuncles

21. Clinical Manifestations/Disease Other infections Primary staphylococcal pneumonia Food poisoning vs. foodborne disease Toxic shock syndrome

22. Metastatic Infections Pulmonary and cardiovascular infection

24. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Staphylococcus epidermidis S. saprophyticus

27. Staphylococcal Lab ID & Diagnostic Tests Microscopic

29. Differential Characteristics

33. Treatment Drain infected area Deep/metastatic infections semi-synthetic penicllins cephalosporins erythromycin clindamycin Endocarditis semi-synthetic penicillin + an aminoglycoside

34. Prevention Carrier status prevents complete control Proper hygiene, segregation of carrier from highly susceptible individuals Good aseptic techniques when handling surgical instruments Control of nosocomial infections

41. Clockwise from Top Left Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) Bullous impetigo (localized form of SSSS) Pustular impetigo Septic embolization Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Clockwise from Top Left Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) Bullous impetigo (localized form of SSSS) Pustular impetigo Septic embolization Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

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