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Cellular Transport. What about Cellular Transport?. Nutrients and wastes move into and out of the cell – this is called cellular transport Nutrients are needed at different amounts and move in and out of the cell to maintain homeostasis. What is needed in mammalian cells?.

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What about Cellular Transport?

  • Nutrients and wastes move into and out of the cell – this is called cellular transport

  • Nutrients are needed at different amounts and move in and out of the cell to maintain homeostasis




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Why such a huge difference?

  • Because mammals have several different cells that perform different tasks and would require different nutrients to perform those tasks



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Osmosis in an Elodea Leaf

  • Background information

  • Elodea is a common freshwater plant that is frequently used to decorate aquariums.

  • The leaves of Elodea are only two cells thick and are ideal for the microscopic study of the effects of osmotic solutions.


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Osmosis in an Elodea Leaf

  • Freshwater is hypotonic to Elodea and maintains normal turgor (osmotic) pressure in the plant. 

  • A hypotonic solution is a solution that contains less (hypo) solutes than the cytoplasm of the cell.

  • Thus, a hypotonic solution has more water than the celland water has a tendency to move (diffuse) into the cell.


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  • Background information

  • In plants this inward "pressure" produces rigidity of the cell as the plasma membranes are pushed against the cell walls.


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Osmosis in an Elodea Leaf

  • Plant cells do not rupture because the cell walls resist the outward expansion of the plasma membrane.





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Osmosis in Paramecium

Background information

Paramecium is a freshwater protozoa (single-cell eukaryotes) and may be obtained by culture (purchased or maintained in the laboratory) or in the field by sampling scum of stagnant water.


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Osmosis in Paramecium

  • Freshwater is hypotonic to Paramecium, and results in the osmotic movement of water into the cell.

  • Specialized organelles called contractile vacuoles function in the homeostatic maintenance of normal turgor pressure




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What happens in a red blood cell in an Isotonic solution?

Red blood cells Plant cell


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What happens in a red blood cell in a Hypotonic solution?

Because there is only a cell membrane the blood cell could burst

Red blood cells Plant cell


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What happens in a red blood cell in a Hypertonic solution?

Red blood cells Plant cell



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Facilitated Diffusion a form of Passive Diffusion

  • Movement of molecules such as glucose through the cell membrane through channel proteins

  • Does not require the input of energy



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Active Transport

  • Movement of material from low concentration to high concentration or against the concentration gradient

  • Requires energy



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Endocytosis

Phagocytosis

  • The process of moving large particles

  • into the cell by endocytosis

  • A type of active transport that moves large amounts of material into the cell

  • Endo= into Cyto= cell


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Exocytosis

  • The removal of large amounts of materials out of the cell

  • Exo= out of Cyto= cell


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