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CAAP. Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology. Description. CAAP is a contemporary, norm-referenced instrument designed to assess English articulation and phonology in preschool/school age children. Authors: Wayne A. Secord, Ph. D., CCC-SLP JoAnn S. Donahue, M.A., CCC-SLP.

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Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology

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  • CAAP is a contemporary, norm-referenced instrument designed to assess English articulation and phonology in preschool/school age children.

  • Authors:

    • Wayne A. Secord, Ph. D., CCC-SLP

    • JoAnn S. Donahue, M.A., CCC-SLP

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Exam Goals

  • To quickly inventory the articulation abilities in young children.

  • To derive a measure of overall articulation competence.

  • To compare word and sentence level competence of school-age children.

  • To estimate the occurrence of 10 common phonological process patterns in children’s speech.

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Test Format

  • TestMaterials:

    • Stimulus easel

      • colored pictures

    • Articulation Inventory

    • Phonologic Processes checklist (x2)

    • Administration Manual

  • Test based two components:

    • Articulation Inventory

    • Phonological Process Checklist I and II

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Articulatory Inventory

  • Two sections:

    • Consonant Inventory

      • 24 consonants, 1 vocalic

      • sounds assessed multiple times in 44 words for a total of 97 test items.

      • 3 levels of difficulty based on sequential order of development:

        • Consonant Singletons (CVC) I.e. yo-yo

        • Cluster Words (CCVC) I.e. clown

        • Multisyllabic Words (CVC V) I.e. elephant

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Articulatory Inventory

  • School-Age Sentence Section

    • 8 sentences varying in length (8-11 words)= total of 73 words produced

    • accuracy measured by number of words produced correctly

  • May end testing with articulatory inventory for preschool-age clients (< 5 years of age)

  • All test sections are suggested for clients older than five years.

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    Phonologic Process Checklist I and II

    • Assesses occurrence of 10 common phonologic processes

    • 3 types of processes:

      • (1)Syllable Structure Process: Phoneme, syllable to be reduced in number, deleted, or repeated.

        • A. final consonant deletion

        • B. cluster reduction

        • C. syllable reduction

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    Phonologic Process Checklist I and II

    • (2)Substitution Process: One sound class replaces another.

      • A. gliding

      • B. vocalization

      • C. fronting

      • D. deaffrication

      • E. stopping

    • (3)Assimilation Process: Change influenced by another sound.

      • A. prevocalic voicing

      • B. postvocalic voicing

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    • Introductory story with pals as a warm up

      • optional

      • works well with defensive children

    • Consonant Inventory

      • show picture plate to elicit response

      • clinician cues on each plate

      • target sounds are highlighted on each plate

      • if child is <5 years, stop testing or go ahead to phonologic probes.

      • If child is 5>, continue with this section

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    • Sentence Section

      • child will repeat 8 sentences

      • clinician may give 2 repetitions per sentence

    • Phonologic Process Probes

      • 2-4 pictures per plate labeled A,B,C,D

      • If child doesn’t respond to A, model target word and request repetition

      • continue with B,C,D

      • may fade verbal cues as needed

      • continue until end of test

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    Recording Responses

    • Consonant Inventory:

      • checkmark= correct responses

      • dash= omitted sound

      • backslash= omitted syllables

      • X= phonetic distortions

      • transcription= substitutions

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    Recording Responses….

    • School-Age Sentences:

      • record / through whole word to indicate error

      • use checkmark to show no error

    • Phonologic Process Checklist I:

      • after fact assessment, so no recording until after test is completed

    • Phonologic Process Checklist II:

      • answer yes/no as responses are made

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    • Consonant Inventory:

      • examiner sums all errors for consonant singletons, cluster words, and o multisyllable words

      • subtotals are summed= Consonant Inventory Score

      • raw score

    • School-Age Sentences:

      • total errors on each is summed

      • enter raw score

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    • Phonologic Process Checklist:

      • sum all yes responses

      • examiner calculates % of occurrence for each process

      • examiner indicates if each process is active or not by circling yes/no response

      • processes having % occurrence of 40% or more are active

      • two calculators are provided in CAAP kit

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    National Standardization

    • CAAP standardized based on 1,707 children

    • ages 2.6-8.11 years

    • standardized version based on 63 consonant singleton words, 18 cluster words, 13 multisyllabic words, 15 preschool sentences, 15 school-age sentences

    • color illustrations

    • administered by 220 SLPs in 35 states

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    Converting Raw Score to Standardized Score

    • After computing raw score, refer to chapter 6 in the examiner’s manual

    • Locate client’s chronological age in norms to appropriate raw score

    • Confidence levels= to 90% confidence

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    wide age range

    colorful pictures

    quick and easy

    contemporary format

    strong emphasis on consonants


    doesn’t emphasize vowel production

    new concepts to SLPs, therefore may require more time to administer initially

    Pros and Cons

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    Ordering Information

    • Available through Super Duper Publications

    • Address: P.O Box 24997 Greenville, Sc. 29616

    • Phone: 1-800-277-8737

    • Web:

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    Thank you for your attention!!

    Dr. Frank Kersting

    Western Kentucky University

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