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social theories. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS. 1. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT LEADS TO MENTAL CONDITION LIFE EVENTS , CHRONIC STRAINS, SOCIAL ROLES. ASSUMPTIONS (CONT.). 2. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT MOST IMPORTANT 3. GROUPS HAVE DIFFERENT EXPOSURE TO STRESSORS AND RATES OF DISORDER

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Basic assumptions
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

  • 1. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT LEADS TO MENTAL CONDITION

  • LIFE EVENTS, CHRONIC STRAINS, SOCIAL ROLES


Assumptions cont
ASSUMPTIONS (CONT.)

  • 2. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT MOST IMPORTANT

  • 3. GROUPS HAVE DIFFERENT EXPOSURE TO STRESSORS AND RATES OF DISORDER

  • 4. FOCUS ON COMMUNITY POPULATIONS NOT CLINICAL CASES




I durkheim
I. DURKHEIM

  • SUICIDE (1897)

  • SUICIDE RATES VARY SYSTEMATICALLY WITH SOCIAL CONDITIONS


Causes of suicide
CAUSES OF SUICIDE

  • 1. LACK OF CONNECTION TO SOCIAL GROUPS AND MEANING SYSTEMS - EGOISTIC (ALTRUISTIC)

  • 2. LACK OF CONSTRAINT OVER BEHAVIOR – ANOMIC (FATALISTIC)

  • FOCUS ON SOCIAL NOT INDIVIDUAL


Ii military psychiatry
II. MILITARY PSYCHIATRY

  • LESSONS OF WWI

  • HUGE PROPORTION OF PSYCHIATRIC CASUALITIES

  • LED TO PRESCREENING OF ALL DRAFTEES IN WWII


Military psychiatry
MILITARY PSYCHIATRY

  • HUGE PROPORTION OF PSYCHIATRIC CASUALTIES IN WWII

  • OVERALL 25%; OVER 70% FOR LONG STRETCHES

  • AVERAGE SOLDIER WOULD BREAKDOWN AFTER 80 DAYS OF CONTINUOUS COMBAT


Effect of combat
EFFECT OF COMBAT

  • HIGHLY PRESCREENED

  • NO INDIVIDUAL PREDISPOSITIONS PREDICTED BREAKDOWNS

  • WHAT DID?

  • LENGTH OF COMBAT BEST PREDICTOR

  • CAUSE WAS ENVIRONMENTAL NOT INDIVIDUAL


Effect of combat1
EFFECT OF COMBAT

  • TREATMENT NEAR UNITS

  • 2/3 RETURNED TO UNITS WITHIN 2 DAYS

  • MINORITY MORE LASTING PROBLEMS (PTSD)


Major reorientation
MAJOR REORIENTATION

  • ENVIRONMENT CAUSE OF MUCH DISORDER - “EVERYONE HAS THEIR BREAKING POINT”

  • FOCUS ON ENTIRE POPULATION NOT JUST TREATED CASES

  • TREATMENT SHOULD BE IN COMMUNITY NOT HOSPITALS


Iii stress theory
III. STRESS THEORY

  • AMBIGUITY OF “STRESS”

  • HERE: STRESSORS = CAUSES

  • DISTRESS = EFFECTS



Hans selye
HANS SELYE

  • PHYSIOLOGIST

  • STUDIED STRESS IN ANIMALS

  • STRESS RESULTED FROM DISTURBANCES OF EQUILIBRIUM - CHANGE


Selye cont
SELYE (CONT.)

  • ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES – TEMPERATURE, FOOD, CROWDING

  • STRESSORS CAUSE PROBLEMS BY WEAKENING IMMUNE SYSTEM

  • GAS - GLOBAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME

  • ANY DISTURBANCE OF EQUILIBRIUM CAN LEAD TO GAS



Holmes and rahe
HOLMES AND RAHE

  • MILITARY PSYCHIATRISTS

  • TRANSLATE STRESS THEORY AND WWII TO CIVILIANS

  • STARTED WITH SAILORS

  • MANY OTHER GROUPS

  • SRRS IN 1968


Holmes and rahe srrs
HOLMES AND RAHE SRRS

  • STANDARDIZED SCORE

  • NEGATIVE - DEATH, DIVORCE, JAIL

  • AND POSITIVE - MARRIAGE, HAVE CHILD, XMAS

  • BOTH CAN DISTURB EQUILIBRIUM

  • FOCUS ON CHANGES

  • SUM NUMBER AND GET SCORE


H r life events
H+R LIFE EVENTS

  • RELATED TO BOTH MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH (NON-SPECIFIC)

  • LESS THAN 150 - FEW HEALTH PROBLEMS

  • OVER 300 - 80% HAVE PROBLEMS

  • OVERALL MODERATE CORRELATION WITH HEALTH PROBLEMS


Criticisms of srrs
CRITICISMS OF SRRS

  • IGNORES CONTEXT AND MEANING

  • ONLY NEGATIVE ARE STRESSFUL

  • WHAT IS CAUSE AND EFFECT?

  • NOT UPDATED

  • IGNORES DIVERSITY OF RESPONSES


Grade distribution
GRADE DISTRIBUTION

  • 90 – 100 A N = 65

  • 88 B+ N = 17

  • 80 - 86 B N = 75

  • 76 - 78 C+ N = 21

  • 60 - 74 C N = 64

  • 50 - 58 D N = 11

  • 32 - 48 F N = 4


Grade distribution1
GRADE DISTRIBUTION

  • 90 – 100 A N = 45

  • 88 B+ N = 15

  • 80 - 86 B N = 69

  • 76 - 78 C+ N = 36

  • 60 - 74 C N = 65

  • 50 - 58 D N = 20

  • 32 - 48 F N = 11


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