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Air Quality: Green Building and Community Planning Judith Auer Shaw, Ph.D., AICP, PP E. J. Bloustein School of Planning & Public Policy Rutgers University Rutgers Center for Green Building and The National Center for Neighborhood and Brownfield Redevelopment April 14, 2010

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Air Quality: Green Building and Community Planning

Judith Auer Shaw, Ph.D., AICP, PP

E. J. Bloustein School of Planning & Public Policy

Rutgers University

Rutgers Center for Green Building

and

The National Center for Neighborhood and Brownfield Redevelopment

April 14, 2010

New Jersey Clean Air Council


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NJDEP 2007


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NJ Global Warming Response Act


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Settlement Patterns

Landscape

Infrastructure

Buildings

Carbon Sequestration

Transportation

Residential Buildings

Deforestation

Electric T&D Loss

Commercial Buildings

Urban Heat Island

Waste Management

Industrial Facilities

CO2 Equivalent Emissions

Land Use and GHG Emissions


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Adopted from http://public.fotki.com/MNCapital/twincitiespagecom-2/saint_paul_neighborhoods/neighborhood_battle/dr11.html

Adopted from http://www.census.gov/pubinfo/www/photos/communities.html

Adopted from http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/newsuburbs.htm

Efficient Land Use Patterns


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  • Town Center

  • 5-minute walk to most everyday activities

  • Street network forms a continuous web with high inter-connectivity

  • Small, pedestrian-friendly streets

  • Mixed uses and architectural styles throughout

  • Civic and community sites: “identity”

Traditional Neighborhood Design

Duaney, Plater-Zyberk. 2001

Douglas Farr. 2008. Sustainable Urbanism.


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Community Planning

  • Community Visioning Creates Focus

    Air Quality/Greenhouse Gas Reduction

  • Provide Clear Data

    Assess traffic patterns, energy usage, common practices

    Review local ordinances relating to air quality

  • Establish objectives

    • Reduce vehicular traffic

    • Reduce greenhouse gases

    • Promote green building

    • Promote green rehabilitation for residences and businesses

Green Buildings


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Benefits of Green Building

WASTE

COST

SAVINGS

50-90%

WATER

USE

SAVINGS

30-50%

Average Savings of Green Buildings

CARBON

SAVINGS

35%

ENERGY

SAVINGS

30%


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Green Building Links:

  • Air Quality

  • Lower Energy Consumption

  • Greenhouse Gas Reduction

  • Water Quality

  • Reductions in Solid Waste

  • Improved Economic Returns

  • Improved Human Health Outcomes

  • Better Neighborhood Design

Green Building Framework for Overall Quality Improvements


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Authorized in 2007 (C.52:27D-130.6):

  • Guidance and consistent performance criteria

  • Owners, builders, and construction professionals

  • Programs that encourage/require green building

  • Resource for local governments and private sector

  • Residential and commercial buildings

NJ Green Building Manual


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Foundations for GB Manual

Performance Based

Tiered Point-Based

System

Web-based Tool

  • Performance Metrics

  • Integrated System

  • Implementation

  • Reporting & Verification


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GB Manual Development

Tiered Performance

Metrics

& Targets

  • Impact Areas:

  • Five green building categories

  • Methodology:

  • “Eco-Efficiency”

  • Cumulative Impacts

Cost

Impacts

Env.

Impacts

Stakeholder Process

  • Technical Guidance & Resources:

  • Case Studies

  • Calculation Tools

  • Illustrations/Diagrams

Green Building Strategies

Organization/Content

Implementation

Recommendations

  • Administration:

  • Verification & Documentation

  • Ongoing Performance Evaluation:

  • Evolution of Guidelines

Evaluation Protocol


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- FIRST COST

- OPERATION COST

(Energy, Maintenance, Remodeling)

+ HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES

+ COMFORT

+ PRODUCTIVITY

+ ENVIRONMENT

Design… Build… Operate…Evaluate


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Commercial Building Process

  • Points of Leverage:

  • Incentives

    • Expedited Permitting/Permit Assistance

    • Awards/Publicity

  • Verification/Documentation for getting incentives require:

    • Integrated Design Meeting

    • Performance Target Checklist/Management Plan

Resources:

Best Practice Strategies

 Case Study Examples

 Integrated Design Tools


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Commercial Building Process

  • Points of Leverage:

  • Incentives

    • Expedited Permitting/Permit Assistance

    • Technical Assistance

    • Awards/Publicity

  • Verification/Documentation for getting incentives

    • Require Schematic Drawings/ASHRAE EQ (As Designed) modeling to show how design helps project meet performance targets

Resources:

Best Practice StrategiesCase Study

Examples

Integrated Design Tools


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Center for Green Building

Strategy Impacts


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Post-Occupancy Evaluation

Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of LEED and national building stock


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54% of census tracts building stock with a majority of single family detached units

20% attached/2/3/4 units

Greening NJ’s Existing Housing Stock


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Air Quality

Green Remodeling


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Why green building?

Indoor Air Quality

  • On average, Americans spend 90% of their time indoors, yet the air inside buildings can be 5-10 times more polluted than outdoor air, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  • Most common pollutants are:

    • Radon

    • Combustion products

    • Molds, pet dander, pollen

    • VOCs

    • Lead dust and asbestos

Source: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/greenbuilding/index.html


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NJ Green Home Remodeling

Sample Strategy Write-up


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Weatherization & Energy

Consider a Photovoltaic System (EE)

Consider solar water heating (EE)

High

Conduct a home performance audit (EE)

Install Programmable

Thermostats (EE)

Select high efficiency HVAC equipment (EE)

Install attic insulation (EE)

Impact

Insulate Hot Water Heater & Pipes (EE)

Provide Proper Moisture Management Strategies (WC, IAQ)

Weather-strip Doors and Windows (WC, EE)

Low

$

Cost

$$$$


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Energy Efficiency - Strategies

BUILDING DESIGN

Building OrientationGreen Roofs Moisture Control Advanced

Framing

Building Envelope Air sealing InsulationPerformance Glazing


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Energy Efficiency – Strategies

- Building Commissioning, Energy Audits

- Renewable Energy & Advanced Energy Systems

Building Computer Products Energy Audit

Commissioning Simulations

Photovoltaics Wind Turbines Geothermal Solar Hot

Energy Water


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Green Design and Retrofitting

Philadelphia Water Company


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