Working after 50 a review of the crow research
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Working after 50: a review of the CROW Research. Stephen McNair Matt Flynn. CROW. Response to labour market problems in the South East – but national/international interests Based in University of Surrey, funded by SEEDA since 2002 Work to date National survey of job change 20+

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CROW

  • Response to labour market problems in the South East – but national/international interests

  • Based in University of Surrey, funded by SEEDA since 2002

  • Work to date

    • National survey of job change 20+

    • Postal survey 50-69 yrs

    • Qualitative interviews of older workers – gender and qualification

    • DTI study on employer behaviour

    • Literature/resource base

    • Briefing papers on key issues


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What is the problem?

  • We are living longer

    • Life expectancy rose by 30 yrs in 20th century,

    • 90% now live to State Pension Age compared to 66% in 1950

  • We are not replacing the workforce

    • lowest ever birth rate (1.6 per woman),

    • young people entering the workforce later,

    • largest ever age cohort approaching retirement,

    • ageing workforce a major constraint in 6/14 occupational sectors

  • We are saving less

    • lowest ever savings rate,

    • highest ever personal debt,

    • average pension yield halved 2000-2003

  • This is not sustainable – people will have to work longer

  • How can policy secure this?


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Responses

  • Employers

    • flexibility

  • Government

    • extending working life,

    • the policy dilemma

  • Individuals

    • the age of choice


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A cautionary note

  • Age differences in cross sectional data are not necessarily age related differences

  • The last 40 years have seen:

    • rising qualifications and educational standards

    • feminisation of the workforce

    • decline in low/unskilled, and manufacturing work

    • increasing technology use

    • declining unemployment


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ESRC Growing Older

  • 24 projects on age – mainly later life

  • Robertson – well being and retirement decisions (primary research)

  • Evandrou – patterns of multiple roles, including work (using Family & Working Lives, Retirement & Retirement Plans survey, General Household Survey


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Joseph Rowntree Foundation: Transitions after 50

  • Discrimination legislation

  • Work history and income

  • Early retirement and income

  • Expectation of leavers

  • Public policy initiatives

  • Transitions from work to retirement

  • Role of flexible employment for older workers

  • Nurses after 50

  • Informal care and work after 50

  • Financial circumstances of the early retired


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How far are older workers different?

  • A national Omnibus Survey of 5400 job changers aged 20-69

  • Spring 2003

  • 1136 in 50-69 age range

  • Examining

    • job changes in last 5 years

    • reason for change

    • effects of change

    • support for change

    • usefulness of the support

    • aspirations for work after retirement


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Frequency of job change declines with age





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Qualifications and class count: 60s: when this reversesa model of the older workforce

  • Choosers

  • Survivors

  • Jugglers


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“Choosers” 60s: when this reverses

  • Highly qualified (mostly graduates)

  • Professional/managerial

  • Positive reasons for job change and retirement

  • High incomes

  • Home owners

  • Stay or retire from choice and for interest

  • 2/3 male


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“Survivors” 60s: when this reverses

  • Unqualified (50% have no qualifications)

  • Routine/semi-routine work

  • Most likely group to be divorced/separated

  • Negative reasons for change and retirement

  • Poor health

  • If home owners - working / if renting - retired

  • 2/3 male


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“Jugglers” 60s: when this reverses

  • Qualified (below degree)

  • Spread across socio-economic range

  • Home owners

  • Working part-time

  • Work in SMEs

  • After retirement may take up voluntary work

  • Almost all are married women


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Individual attitudes to work 60s: when this reverses

  • Postal survey

  • 50-69 yr olds from Omnibus sample

  • 400 responses

  • Employed and retired


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Attitudes toward work 60s: when this reverses


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Would like to do paid work 60s: when this reverses


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Attitudes to retirement age options 60s: when this reverses


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How prepared are employers? 60s: when this reverses

  • Commissioned by DTI to inform drafting of legislation

  • Literature review

  • Key national informants

  • 4 case studies

  • HR Directors, Employee reps, line managers

  • Reporting Jan 05


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Drivers for change: employers 60s: when this reverses

  • Not the legislation – yet

  • Labour demands – 24/7, shortage of people

  • Recruitment costs

  • Ageing workforce

  • Skills retention - mentoring

  • Reputation – Age Positive

  • Cost benefit


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Attitudes to legislation: employers 60s: when this reverses

  • Retirement age

    • Prefer abolition, with exemptions (?)

    • 70 default will lead to raised pension age

    • employer set is impractical

    • ability to discuss without discriminating

    • relationship with DDA – what is “reasonable adjustment”

  • Long service awards

  • Succession planning and a balanced workforce

  • Legislation will lead to improved appraisal/management


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Important concerns – literature, interviews and pilots 60s: when this reverses

  • HR policies

    • little direct discrimination evident

    • concern about policy/practice gap

    • differences between group

  • Retirement age

    • abolition raises problems with a few staff, but not many

    • default at 70 will raise real resistance because of pension knock on implications

    • Practicalities of managing retirement without discrimination, levels of proof etc.

  • Timescales

    • all want draft regulations urgently

    • particularly want decision on retirement age and long service awards


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Conclusions 60s: when this reverses


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How different are older workers in the UK? 60s: when this reverses

  • changes are trends, not steps, but accelerating in the late 50s

  • mobility, positive job changes and participation in training decline with age

  • career and money decline as motivators, but slowly

  • social division increases – reinforced by job change

  • more people want to work part-time after retirement than do so

  • control over working life is critical


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Increasing labour market participation after 50: policy implications

  • Recognise diversity

  • Personal autonomy increases commitment

  • Retention is easier than re-entry

  • Manage health better

  • Flexible working and stress reduction help


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Future research issues implications

  • Learning needs of older workers

  • Models of flexible working

  • Health interventions

  • ??



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