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Topic 3: System Unit. Robiatun Adawiah PCA0025 2010/2011. Objectives. Identify types of memory inside the system unit. Identify the components in the system unit. Describe the types of expansion slots and expansion cards in the system unit.

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Topic 3 system unit l.jpg

Topic 3: System Unit

Robiatun Adawiah

PCA0025

2010/2011


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives

Identify types of memory inside the system unit

Identify the components in the system unit

Describe the types of expansion slots and expansion cards in the system unit

Explain how the CPU uses the four steps of a machine cycle

Explain each bus that connects devices inside the system unit

Describe how a series of bits can represent data

Topic 3 - System Unit


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The System Unit

  • Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

    • Sometimes called the chassis

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The System Unit

  • Common components inside the system unit

    • Motherboard

    • Processor

    • Memory

    • Adapter cards

      • Sound card

      • Modem card

      • Video card

      • Network card

    • Ports

    • Power supply

    • Hard Disk

Topic 3 - System Unit


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Motherboard/System Board

  • Backbone – support all the other computer component

  • Main circuit board of the system unit

  • Contains

    • expansion slots

    • processor chips

    • cooling fan

    • ports

    • memory slots

    • processor(s)

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Motherboard/System Board

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Central Processing Unit

  • Also known as processor/microprocessor

    • A small piece of semiconducting material on which integrated circuit are attached

    • Chips are packaged  attached to a circuit board

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Dual Core

  • A dual-core processor is a single silicon chip or integrated circuit that contains two separate processors

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Processor

Control Unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

InstructionsDataInformation

InstructionsDataInformation

Central Processing Unit

  • Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer

Control Unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Memory

InputDevices

OutputDevices

Data

Information

StorageDevices

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Control Unit

Arithmetic operation

Logical operation

Central Processing Unit

COMPONENTS IN CPU:

  • Control Unit (CU)

    • Directs and coordinates operations in computer

    • Each instruction - repeat 4 basic instructions  Machine cycle

  • Arithmetic/ Logic Unit (ALU)

    • Perform arithmetic operation and logical operation

    • Control the speed of the operation

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e-time

i-time

Central Processing Unit

  • How the CPU executes program instructions

    • Fetch - obtain program instruction or data item from memory

    • Decode - translate instruction into commands the CPU understands

    • Execute - carry out command

    • Store - write or store result in register or RAM

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Central Processing Unit

  • System clock

    • Controls timing of all computer operations

    • Generates regular electronic pulses, or ticks, that set operating pace of components of system unit

Each tick is a clock cycle

Pace of system clock is clock speed

(GHz)

Processor speed can also be measured in millions of instructions per second (MIPS)

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Central Processing Unit

  • Register

    • Temporary high-speed storage area that holds data and instructions

Stores location from where instruction was fetched

Stores instruction while it is being decoded

Stores data while ALU computes it

Stores results of calculation

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Central Processing Unit

FETCH

STORE

EXECUTE

DECODE

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Central Processing Unit

  • Ways to increase computer performances

    • Parallel Processing

      • Using multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program faster

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Central Processing Unit

  • Pipelining

    • Processor begins fetching second instruction before completing machine cycle for first instruction

    • Results in faster processing

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Data Representations

  • How do computers represent data?

    • Use a binary system to recognize two states (on or off)

    • Use number system with two unique digits: 0 and 1, called bits (short for binary digits)

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Data Representations

  • Byte

    • Eight bits grouped together as a unit

    • Provides enough different combinations of 0 and 1 to represent 256 individual characters

      • Numbers, uppercase and lowercase letters, punctuation marks & others

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ASCII Symbol EBCDIC

00110000 0 11110000

00110001 1 11110001

00110010 2 11110010

00110011 3 11110011

Data Representations

  • Two popular coding systems to represent data

    • ASCII—American Standard Code for Information Interchange

    • EBCDIC—Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

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volatile memory

content is lost when computer’s power is turned off

nonvolatile memory

content is not lost when computer’s power is turned off

Memory

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Memory Module

Memory Chip

Memory

  • Random access memory (RAM)

    • Also called main memory or primary storage

    • Most RAM is volatile

    • Responsible :

      • Hold data for processing

      • Hold instruction to process the data

      • Hold data after being processed

    • The more RAM a computer has, the faster it responds

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seat A22

seat C22

seat B22

Memory

  • Storage locations and addresses

    • An address is a unique number that identify the location of a byte in the memory

    • The address numbers of the location remains the same, but the contents (instructions and data) of the locations may change

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Memory

  • Read-only memory (ROM)

    • Memory chips that store permanent data and instructions

    • Data can only be read; cannot be modified in ROM

    • Nonvolatile memory, content is not lost when computer’s power is turned off

    • BIOS (basic input/output system)

      • Stored on ROM

      • Sequence of instructions that computer follows to load operating system and other files when you turn on the computer

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Used in some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory chips

Uses battery power to retain information when other power is turned off

Stores date, time, and computer’s startup information

Memory

  • CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)

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Memory

  • Cache

    • Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and data

    • Also called memory cache

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Memory

  • Flash memory

    • Nonvolatile memory that can be used with PDAs, smart phones, printers, digital cameras, automotive devices, audio players, digital voice recorders, and pagers

    • Plug and play device

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Bus Lines

  • A set of parallel electrical paths that allows devices inside computer to communicate with each other

  • Bus width determines number of bits transmitted at one time

  • Two kinds of buses:

    • System bus connects processor and RAM

    • Expansion bus (data bus or I/O bus)

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Bus Lines

  • Expansion Bus

    • An opening, or socket, where circuit board is inserted onto motherboard

    • Allows processor to communicate with peripherals

  • Expansion card is inserted in expansion slot

expansion card

expansion slot

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Bus Lines

  • Types of expansion bus

    • ISA bus (Industry Standard Architecture) /AT bus

      • Old low speed 16 bit bus

      • Used to connect devices such as mouse, modem and sound cards

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Bus Lines

  • PCI bus (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

    • 32 bit bus

    • Used to connect to higher speed devices such as network cards and sound cards

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Bus Lines

  • AGP bus (Accelerated Graphic Port)

    • Used for the graphics card

    • Designed to improve the of video and 3-D graphics transmission

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Bus Lines

  • PCMCIA bus (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)

    • Better known as PC cards

    • Normally used in laptops

    • Used to connect PC cards such as modem or network card

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Bus Lines

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Ports and Connectors

  • Ports

    • Connects external devices to system unit

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Ports and Connectors

  • Connectors

    • Physical device used to plug to the system unit

    • Used to join a cable to an external peripheral

    • Available in genders: male and female

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serial transmission of data

Byte representation for number 5 (00110101)

Byte

representation

for number 5 (00110101)

Byte representation for number 5 (00110101)

DB-9 femaleconnector

DB-9 male connector

Ports and Connectors

  • Serial port

    • Transmits one bit of data at a time

    • Used to connect slow-speed devices, such as mouse, keyboard, modem

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byte representation for number 1

byte representation for number 3

byte representation fornumber 5

DB-25 male connector

DB-25 female connector

Ports and Connectors

  • Parallel port

    • Connects devices that can transfer more than one bit at a time, such as a printer, scanner

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It has “hot swap” features – you don’t have to reboot the system

USB is plug and play -attaching devices without having to reconfigure or load device drivers

Ports and Connectors

  • USB (universal serial bus) port

Scanners, printers, mouse, digital camera, keyboards can be connected to USB port

Topic 3 - System Unit


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Ports and Connectors

  • FireWire ports

    • High-speed serial bus created by Apple

    • Previously known as IEEE 1394 port

    • Commonly used to connect digital video devices - digital cameras, DVD drives, digital video cameras & etc

    • Support Plug and Play

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Ports and Connectors

  • Ethernet ports

    • Also known as RJ-45 jack

    • To connect computer to a LAN

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Ports and Connectors

  • IrDA ports

    • Developed by Infrared Data Association - transmitting data

    • Allows you to transmit data using infrared light waves

    • Requires line of sight transmission

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Ports and Connectors

  • Bluetooth ports

    • Uses radio waves to transmit data wirelessly over short distance

    • Doesn’t require line of sight transmission

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Ports and Connectors

  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) ports

    • Allows you to connect electrical musical instruments to the computer

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Ports and Connectors

  • SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) ports

    • It is a high-speed parallel port attached to SCSI devices - hard drives, tape drives or disk drives

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Ports and Connectors

New ports are replacing traditional port

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That's all for topic 3....

thank you

Topic 3 - System Unit


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