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Continue on to Set # 16C. Teeth / Jaw Diet. the lower jaw = mandible related term: “mandibular torus”. The jaw . . . in apes mandibles slant outward and downward, without a chin (“prognathism”) . Pongid Prognathism . (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red.).

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Continue on to Set # 16C

Teeth / Jaw

Diet


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the lower jaw =

mandible

related term:

“mandibular torus”


The jaw l.jpg
The jaw . . .

in apes mandibles slant outward and downward, without a chin

(“prognathism”)


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Pongid Prognathism.

(Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red.)

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 245


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The jaw . . .

in humans lower jaw is comparatively small, but always has a distinct chin


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Modern human cranium.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 432


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The teeth . . .

apes have a “simian shelf” rather than a chin


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The teeth . . .

ape teeth have cusp patterns for the lower molars similar to those of humans . . .


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The teeth . . .

rather than a “plus-4” pattern . . .

apes have a “Y-5” pattern


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plus-4

Y-5

Y-5


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The teeth . . .

apes (and monkeys) still possess conical, daggerish canines which project well beyond the surface of the opposite teeth . . .


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The teeth . . .

apes (and monkeys) have diastemata, spaces opposite the large canine teeth. . .

(“diastemata” = plural of “diastema”)


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The teeth . . .

diastema =

a space in the tooth row that accommodates one or more teeth from the opposite jaw


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Teeth of a male patas monkey.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 205


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The teeth . . .

both apes and humans have

8 incisors I

4 canines C

8 premolars P

12 molars M

abbreviations


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The teeth . . .

both apes and humans have the same “dental formula”

2.1.2.3. 2.1.2.3.


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Donald Johanson and Maitland Edey,

Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1981.


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Dental formulae

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 120


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The teeth . . .

apes have a “U”-shaped jaw . . .


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The teeth . . .

in humans the plate is arched and curves outward at the back (parabolic arch) . . .


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The teeth . . .

the overall evolutionary trend is toward smaller teeth


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Continue on to Set # 16D

Next: Other Changes

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 136


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