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Stratigraphy. The study of strata (layers) of rocks with an eye toward interpreting the geologic history of the region Closely tied to dating methods Uses a variety of methods - fossils, stable isotopes, paleomagnetics, sedimentary cycles - to correlate and distinguish layers

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stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
  • The study of strata (layers) of rocks with an eye toward interpreting the geologic history of the region
  • Closely tied to dating methods
  • Uses a variety of methods - fossils, stable isotopes, paleomagnetics, sedimentary cycles - to correlate and distinguish layers
  • Very important for oil exploration and mining
stratigraphic principles
Stratigraphic Principles
  • Principle of original horizontality
    • Every sedimentary layer is deposited horizontally
stratigraphic principles3
Stratigraphic Principles
  • Principle of cross-cutting relationships
    • Any layer that is cut by something else has to be older than that something else
    • Applies to igneous intrusions, faults, veins, erosional surfaces, etc.

Granitic intrusion

From D. McConnell, Geologic Time,

http://lists.uakron.edu/geology/natscigeo/Lectures/time/gtime1.htm

stratigraphic principles4
Stratigraphic Principles
  • Principle of stratigraphic superposition
    • Oldest rocks are on the bottom
    • Youngest rocks are on the top

Dead Horse Point, UT

From D. McConnell, Geologic Time,

http://lists.uakron.edu/geology/natscigeo/Lectures/time/gtime1.htm

stratigraphic principles5
Stratigraphic Principles
  • Principle of original lateral continuity
    • Sedimentary layers don’t just stop suddenly
    • They extend horizontally until they taper out

Millroy, PA

Pictures from D. McConnell, Geologic Time,

http://lists.uakron.edu/geology/natscigeo/Lectures/time/gtime1.htm

Graybull, WY

stratigraphic principles6
Stratigraphic Principles
  • Principle of unconformities
    • Some stratigraphic sections are incomplete
    • Any place where there is missing time is called an unconformity
    • Unconformities normally happen either through erosion or non-deposition
slide7

The Great Unconformity

Grand Canyon, AZ

slide8

Angular

Unconformity

stratigraphic thinking
Stratigraphic Thinking

From D. McConnell, Geologic Time,

http://lists.uakron.edu/geology/natscigeo/Lectures/time/gtime1.htm

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