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70-270: MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows XP Professional Second Edition, Enhanced Chapter 13: Booting Windows XP. Objectives. Understand the Windows XP boot process Work with the Windows XP boot phase Understand troubleshooting and advanced startup options

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70-270: MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows XP ProfessionalSecond Edition, Enhanced Chapter 13: Booting Windows XP


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Objectives

  • Understand the Windows XP boot process

  • Work with the Windows XP boot phase

  • Understand troubleshooting and advanced startup options

  • Understand boot configuration and selecting an operating system

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Objectives (continue)

  • Edit the Boot.ini file

  • Understand the XP load phase

  • Understand multiple-boot systems

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Windows XP Boot Phase

  • Boot processphases:

    • Boot phase

      • Begins when computer is first powered on

      • Begins when you choose Restart from Turn Off Computer dialog box

    • Load phase

      • Begins when boot phase is completed

      • Configuration is selected

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Boot Phase Steps

  • Power-on self test (POST)

  • Initial startup

  • Boot loader

  • Selecting the operating system

  • Detecting hardware

  • Selecting a configuration

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Power-on Self Test

  • First step in boot sequence for any computer with an operating system

  • Determines:

    • Amount of real memory that exists

    • Whether or not all necessary hardware components are present

  • Specific tests depend on BIOS

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Power-on Self Test (continued)

  • Tests successful:

    • Computer boots itself

  • Tests unsuccessful:

    • Computer reports error by:

      • Emitting a series of beeps

      • Possibly displaying error message and code on screen

  • Software resides in:

    • Battery-powered chip

    • Called CMOS

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Power-on Self Test (continued)

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Initial Startup

  • Involves numerous files and initialization procedures

  • Master Boot Record (MBR)

  • Partition boot sector

  • Ntldr

  • System partition

  • Boot partition

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Windows XP Startup Files

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Boot Loader

  • Collection of files on system partition

  • Used to initiate loading of operating system

  • Displays boot menu

  • Required files:

    • Ntldr

    • Ntdetect.com

    • Boot.ini

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Boot Loader (continued)

  • Partition format:

    • FAT

    • FAT32

    • NTFS

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Selecting the Operating System

  • Boot.ini

    • Contains operating system choices

  • Boot selection menu

    • User chooses operating system

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Boot Selection Menu

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Detecting Hardware

  • Ntdetect.com

    • Executed by boot loader

    • Used to collect list of hardware currently installed in computer

    • Creates a system profile

    • Profile later compared to Windows XP Registry entries

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Selecting a Configuration

  • System selects configuration

    • Known as hardware profile

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options

  • Windows XP combines boot and recovery options of:

    • Windows NT

    • Windows 95/98

  • Press F8 to access additional startup options

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options (continued)

  • Safe Mode

  • Safe Mode with Networking

  • Safe Mode with Command Prompt

  • Enable Boot Logging

  • Enable VGA Mode

  • Last Known Good Configuration

  • Directory Services Restore Mode

  • Debugging Mode

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options (continued)

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Boot Configuration and Selecting an Operating System

  • Controlled through configuration file

    • Boot.ini

    • File located in the root directory of the system partition

    • Used by boot loader to display the list of available operating systems

    • Consists of two sections:

      • [boot loader]

      • [operating systems]

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Sample Boot.ini

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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[boot loader]

  • Settings:

    • timeout

    • default

  • Timeout

    • Number of seconds system waits for user to select an operating system

    • Setting of zero

      • Default operating system automatically loaded

  • Timeout

    • Setting of -1

      • Waits indefinitely

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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[operating systems]

  • Lists available operating systems

  • Listing contains:

    • Path to boot partition for operating system

    • Text displayed in boot loader screen

    • Optional parameters

  • Switches:

    • /BASEVIDEO

    • /BAUDRATE=n

    • /BOOTLOG

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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[operating systems] (continued)

  • Switches:

    • /CRASHDEBUG

    • /DEBUG

    • /DEBUGPORT={com1|com2|1394}

    • /FASTDETECT={com1|com2|…}

    • /MAXMEM=n

    • /NOGUIBOOT

    • /NODEBUG

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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[operating systems] (continued)

  • Switches:

    • /NUMPROC=n

    • /SAFEBOOT:MINIMAL

    • /SAFEBOOT:NETWORK

    • /SAFEBOOT:MINIMAL(ALTERNATESHELL)

    • /SOS

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Advanced RISC Computing Pathnames

  • Path pointing to \WINDOWS directory in Boot.ini written using Advanced RISC Computing pathnamenaming conventions

  • scsi(n) or multi(n)

  • disk(n)

  • rdisk(n)

  • partition(n)

  • \path

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Editing Boot.ini

  • Options:

    • Use Control Panel to edit indirectly

    • Use text editor to change directly

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Using Control Panel

  • Safest way to proceed

  • System applet:

    • Advanced tab

    • Startup and Recovery section

    • Settings button

  • Startup and Recovery dialog box

    • Choose default boot selection

    • Select delay interval before boot selection starts automatically

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Using Control Panel (continued)

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Startup and Recover Dialog

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Using a Text Editor

  • Use Notepad or any other text editor

  • Be careful when editing file

  • Incorrect configuration:

    • Windows XP might not boot

  • Create backup copy of file before making changes

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Windows XP Load Phase

  • Stages:

    • Loading the kernel

    • Initializing the kernel

    • Services load

    • Windows XP system startup

    • Logging on

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Loading the Kernel

  • Boot loader loads into memory:

    • Windows XP kernel (Ntoskrnl.exe)

    • Hardware abstraction layer (HAL; file Hal.dll)

  • Boot loader retrieves configuration you selected from Registry subkey:

    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\Select

  • Loads drivers listed in Registry subkey:

    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Loading the Kernel (continued)

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Initializing the Kernel

  • Kernel creates Registry key:

    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\HARDWARE

  • Creates CloneControlSet

  • Initializes drivers that were loaded by boot loader

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Initializing the Kernel (continued)

  • Driver error levels:

    • Ignore

    • Normal

    • Severe

    • Critical

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Services Load

  • Kernel starts Session Manager

  • Starts programs that correspond to key entries under Registry key:

    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SessionManager\BootExecute

  • Autocheck

  • Paging files are set up

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Services Load (continued)

  • Session Manager writes to Registry:

    • CurrentControlSet

    • CloneControlSet

  • Windows (Win32) subsystem loaded

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Windows XP System Startup

  • Signaled by appearance of Windows XP logon screen

  • Win32 subsystem starts winlogon.exe

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Logging On

  • User logs on

  • Boot process is not complete until Clone control set is copied to Last Known Good control set

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Multiple-boot Systems

  • Windows XP operating system can peacefully coexist with other operating systems

  • Operating system uses one or more file systems to organize the data within volumes

  • Not all file systems and operating systems are compatible

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Multiple Windows Operating Systems

  • Operating systems can co-exist with Windows XP:

    • Windows 3.1

    • Windows 3.11

    • Windows 95/98

    • Windows NT

    • Windows 2000

    • Windows Server 2003

  • Specify different installation partition

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Multiple Installation Order

  • Order in which you install operating systems is important

  • Install older operating systems first

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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Summary (continued)

  • Boot process consists of boot phase and load phase

  • Press F8 to access Windows Advanced Options Menu

  • After boot loader, kernel is loaded into memory and is granted control of computer

  • Boot process can be altered by changing Boot.ini

  • Older Windows versions can co-exist with XP

Guide to MCSE 70-270, Second Edition, Enhanced


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