Popular Radio: History of Technology. 1844: Samuel F.B. Morse introduces the telegraph: interrupt a wired electrical signal in code. 1873: James Clark Maxwell theorizes the electromagnetic spectrum.
1844: Samuel F.B. Morse introduces the telegraph: interrupt a wired electrical signal in code.
1873: James Clark Maxwell theorizes the electromagnetic spectrum.
1876: Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone: modulated wired electrical signal allows for voice transmission.
1888: Heinrich Hertz sends first electromagnetic signal in the laboratory.
Guglielmo Marconi: First practical wireless telegraphy, 1894
Forms British Marconi, 1897
First signal across English Channel, 1899
First Transatlantic signal, 1901
Marconi monopolizes wireless telegraphy
1906: Lee DeForest refines the vacuum tube as the Audion (three elements); allows for amplification of the signal, increasing volume and distance.
1906: Reginald Fessenden sends first broadcast voice transmission (Westinghouse) from Brant Rock, MA.
By 1914, Marconi Wireless of America dominates wireless telegraphy. In the wake of World War I, the U.S. government seizes all assets: patents and stations. In 1919, the government facilitates the formation of Radio Corporation of America, owned jointly by General Electric, Westinghouse, AT&T and the United Fruit Company to control wireless.
David Sarnoff at the telegraph during the sinking of the Titanic. He is appointed general manager of RCA in 1921.
1920: First licensed broadcast by KDKA, Pittsburgh (Frank Conrad for Westinghouse.
1922: First “commercial” broadcast (WEAF, NY) by AT&T, toll broadcasting.
1926: Establishment of NBC Red and Blue networks by RCA; AT&T gets out of broadcasting.
1927: Establishment of United Independent Broadcasters( becomes CBS with William Paley, 1928).
1934: Establishment of Mutual Broadcasting System (by remaining major independent stations).
1912: First Radio Act in response to sinking of Titanic.
1919-1934: RCA is government monopoly in wireless.
1926-27: Government regulation of radio denied by Supreme Court: “Age of Chaos.”
1927: Radio Act establishes government regulation of radio: discretionary power
1934: Communications Act (F.C.C.)
1943: Duopoly Rules in wake of U.S. v. NBC. NBC forced to sell one network (Blue --> ABC) and CBS must loosen ties with affiliates.
1920s-1930s: Development of most program formats: variety shows, dramas, series, serials (soap operas). Radio produces its own stars and programs, including Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy, Jack Benny and The Lone Ranger.
1938: Orson Welles’ Mercury Theater of the Air presents “War of the Worlds” demonstrating the power of radio.
1940s: Radio becomes dominant in breaking news during WW II.
1940s: First disk jockey programs (lack of musicians): Make Believe Ballroom
Transistor (1947): Radio becomes portable
Frequency Modulation (FM) invented by Edwin Armstrong (1933): reduced static and regularized channel size; eventually allows for easy adoption of
Stereo for FM broadcasting (1962).
Satellite delivery (NPR, 1972) allows for increased ease of national program networking and syndication
Digital Audio Broadcasting (1990s): Digitized signals deliver “CD quality” sound.
1. Localization of programming: use of recorded music and disk jockeys; local news predominates.
2. Localization of advertising: National ads went to television.
3. Top 40 formats: Limited playlists (replicates a juke box).
4. Rock ‘n’ Roll and the youth market
5. Discovery of FM (1967, Non-duplication).
6. Specialization in formats, daypart (mornings and afternoons), new forms of networking (limited).
7. Rebirth of national programming (1980s): Satellite delivery to provide programs for smaller markets; esp., Talk radio, sports
80s Hits New AC (NAC)/Smooth Jazz
Active Rock New Country
Adult Contemporary (AC) News/Talk/Information
Adult Standards/MOR Nostalgia
Album Adult Alternative (AAA) Oldies
Album Oriented Rock (AOR) Other
All News Pop Contemporary Hit Radio
All Sports Religious
Alternative Rhythmic Contemporary Hit Radio
Children’s Radio Rhythmic Oldies
Classical Soft AC
Classic Country Southern Gospel
Classic Hits Spanish Contemporary
Classic Rock Spanish News/Talk
Contemporary Christian Spanish Oldies
Contemporary Inspirational Spanish Religious
Country Spanish Tropical
Easy Listening Spanish Variety
Gospel Urban AC
Hot AC Urban Contemporary
Jazz Urban Oldies
Mexican Regional Variety