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NUTRITION AND WELLNESS. Meredith Schneider RD, LD. About Me. Meredith Schneider, RD, LD Graduated from Coordinated Program in Dietetics from the University of Texas at Austin Currently working on my master’s degree in exercise physiology at UT Austin

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NUTRITION AND WELLNESS

Meredith Schneider

RD, LD


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About Me

  • Meredith Schneider, RD, LD

  • Graduated from Coordinated Program in Dietetics from the University of Texas at Austin

  • Currently working on my master’s degree in exercise physiology at UT Austin

  • Also work in private practice in Austin: Central Texas Nutrition Consultants


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CARBOHYDRATE

  • Important for energy (esp. brain, red blood cells) and can be stored as glycogen

  • Body responds to ingestion by releasing insulin

  • Intake is about 50-60% of total daily calories

    • 4 calories/gram of carbohydrate

  • Food Examples:

    • Grains (breads, cereals, pasta, rice, oats/bran)

    • Fruits & vegetables (including corn, potatoes)

    • Beans

    • Sweets (cookies, cakes, pastries, etc.)


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FIBER

  • Component of carbohydrate; structural part of plant

    • Not digested by human digestive enzymes

  • Recommended intake: 20-35 grams/day

    • Considered a good source if 4-5 grams/serving

  • Types: cellulose, hemicellulose, mucilages, gums, lignins, cutins, tannins

  • Sources include:

    • Fruits & vegetables (especially with skin)

    • Whole grains, oats, bran

    • Beans, nuts, seeds


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PROTEIN

  • Broken down during digestion into amino acids

  • 4 calories/gram

  • Recommended intake: ~60-80 grams/day= .8 g/kg

  • Functions:

    • Building materials for growth & maintenance (collagen)  hair, skin, teeth, nails, muscles

    • Enzymes & hormones

    • Transporters: hemoglobin, lipoproteins

  • Provides iron

  • Food sources: meats, eggs, dairy, soy, nuts


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FAT

  • Calorie-dense source of energy (9 calories/gram)

  • Functions:

    • Aids in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins

    • Provides energy reserve in body’s fat stores

    • Contributes to satiety

    • Provides essential fatty acids (omega-3, omega-6)

  • Good sources include:

    • Nuts, seeds  monounsaturated (omega-6’s)

    • Avocado  monounsaturated (omega-6’s)

    • Fish (salmon, tuna, halibut)  omega-3’s

    • Oils (olive, canola, flaxseed)  omega 3’s, 6’s


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Fat, cont’d.

  • Triglycerides: chief form of fat in the diet and major form of fat in the body

  • Saturated fats:triglycerides in which most fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen atoms (ex. butter, lard)

    • Unsaturated fats: triglycerides in which most fatty acids are unsaturated (double bonds) (ex. Olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil)

  • Trans fats: refers to location of double bonds in fatty acids

    • Contributes to heart disease (act like saturated fats in the body) (ex. Hydrogenated oil)

  • Other food sources: fried foods, high fat animal products (meats, dairy), “junk foods” (chips, pastries, cookies, crackers, doughnuts)


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    Nutrition During Pregnancy

    • Recommended weight gain:

      • 25 lbs if normal weight

      • 28-40 lbs if underweight

      • 15-25 lbs if overweight

    • Energy and nutrient needs:

      • Calories: 340/day extra during the 2nd trimester & 450/day extra during 3rd trimester

      • Be sure to eat nutrient-rich foods

      • Protein: RDA + 25 grams


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    Nutrition During Pregnancy, cont’d

    • Special nutrient needs:

      • Folate: 600 micrograms/day; important for proper neural tube formation

      • Vitamin B12: 2.6 micrograms/day; necessary for activation of folate enzyme

      • Iron: 27 mg/day to support increased blood volume & provide for fetus and placenta

      • Calcium needs do not increase during pregnancy

    • Women should take prenatal vitamins to receive proper nutrient amounts


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    Nutrition During Infancy

    • Newborn baby needs 450 calories/day

    • Infant needs ~100 calories/kg of body weight

    • Energy & nutrients:

      • Fat provides most energy from breast milk/formula

      • Protein is essential for growth

      • Increased need for Vitamins A, D, E, C, B12; Folate, Riboflavin, Thiamin, Calcium, Iodine, Zinc

    • Introduce solid foods at 4-6 months

    • Introduce cow’s milk (whole) at 1 year


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    Nutrition During Childhood

    • Daily calorie needs vary widely (800 kcals at 1 yr; 1200 kcals at 6 yrs; 2000 kcals at 10 yrs)

    • Amount of physical activity determines individual calorie needs

    • Nutrient needs:

      • Carbohydrate needs are similar to adults (50-60% of daily calorie intake); children need at least 5 grams fiber/day

      • Protein: declines from 1.5 g/kg at 1 yr to .8 g/kg at 19

      • Fat: 25-35% of total calories from age 4-18


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    Nutrition in Later Adulthood

    • Physiological changes:

      • Increase in fat stores and decrease in muscle mass (sarcopenia)

      • GI complications which can affect intake (dysphagia, tooth loss)

      • Sensory losses: diminished taste

    • Energy needs:

      • Men subtract 10 kcal/day for each year over age 19; women subtract 7 kcal/day for each year over age 19

    • Protein needs are lower; still need abundant CHO; mod. fat intake; Vit B12 & D, Iron, Ca, important


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    Digestion

    • Teachers: Highlight key organs in digestive tract (mouth, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas) & digestive enzymes & horomes secreted from each

    • Digestive enzymes: proteins found in digestive juices that breakdown food substances into smaller constituents (end in –ase)

      • Ex. Carbohydrase, lipase, protease, salivary amylase

    • Actions of HCl and bile

    • Actions of digestive hormones: Gastrin, secretin, CCK, GIP


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    Basal and Activity Metabolism

    • Basal metabolic rate: the rate of energy use for metabolism under specified conditions – after a 12-hour fast and restful sleep, without any physical activity, and in a comfortable setting; expressed as calories per kilogram per hour

      • Calculated by exchange of oxygen and carbohydrate

    • Factors affecting BMR:

      • Age, height, growth, body composition/gender, fever, stresses, environmental temperature, fasting/starvation, malnutrition, hormones, smoking, caffeine, sleep

    • Use BMR x Activity Factor for total daily calorie needs


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    Weight Management/Physical Activity

    • Calories in > Calories out = weight gain

    • Calories in < Calories out = weight loss

    • Calories in=Calories out = weight maintenance

    • 1 lb of body fat= 3500 calories

    • Healthy weight loss is .5-1 pound of body weight/wk

    • Calorie needs increase with increased physical activity

    • Weight management: combining a proper, healthy diet and regular physical activity


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    Food Labels

    • Serving size: appropriate portions for one sitting

      • All numbers on label correspond with one serving size

    • Calories: amount of energy provided by the food

    • Fat: categorizes saturated, trans fats

    • Carbohydrates: includes sugar, fiber, other carbohydrates

    • Other nutrients on label: sodium, % Vitamins A, C

    • Ingredients: first 3 ingredients listed are the ones in highest amount in the food

    • % Daily Value: % contributed by nutrient based on needs for a 2000 calorie diet


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    Nutritional Serving Sizes (1 serving)

    • Carbohydrates (6-11 servings/day)

      • 1 slices of bread, ½ c cooked cereal, rice or pasta, ½ bun or bagel

    • Vegetables (3-5 servings/day)

      • ½ cup cooked or raw vegetables, 1 c leafy raw vegetables, ½ c cooked legumes, ¾ c vegetable juice

    • Fruits (2-4 servings/day)

      • 1 medium-sized fruit, ¾ c juice, ½ c diced, cooked, canned fruit, ¼ c dried fruit. ½ c berries

    • Meat, Poultry, Fish (2-3 servings/day)

      • 2-3 oz lean, cooked meat, 1 egg, ½ c cooked legumes, 2 Tbsp peanut butter, 1/3 c nuts or seeds

    • Milk, Cheese, Yogurt (2 servings/day)

      • 1 c milk or yogurt, 2 oz processed cheese, 1 ½ oz cheese


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    Quick & Easy Estimates of Portion Sizes

    • 1 c cooked vegetable= a fist

    • 1 medium fruit= a baseball

    • ¼ c dried fruit= a golf ball

    • 3 oz meat= a deck of cards

    • 2 tbsp peanut butter= a ping pong ball

    • 1 ½ oz cheese= 6 stacked dice


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    Foodborne Illness

    Foodborne Illness: illness transmitted to human beings through food and water, caused by either an infectious agent (foodborne infection) or a poisonous substance (food intoxication); commonly known as food poisoning

    • Common foodborne infections/intoxications:

      • Giardiasis: from contaminated water, uncooked foods

      • Listeriosis: from raw meat, poultry, seafood, milk

      • Salmonellosis: from raw or undercooked eggs, meats, poultry, milk

      • E. coli infection: from undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized milk, contaminated water

      • Shigellosis: from raw foods, salads, dairy products, contaminated water

      • Botulism: from canning (look for dents)

      • Staphylococcal food poisoning: toxin produced in meats, poultry, egg products, tuna


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    Food Preparation Techniques

    • To reduce overall fat:

      • Bake, broil, grill, sautee foods using olive/canola oil instead of frying with hydrogenated oil

      • Trade cream for a lower fat alternative

      • Avoid using large amounts of butter or lard

    • To maintain nutrient values:

      • Steam vegetables instead of boil

      • If using microwave, use little water on the lowest heat for the shortest amount of time

      • Eat foods as fresh as possible (time will reduce nutrient value)


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    Careers in Nutrition

    • Registered dietitian: earn a bachelor’s degree in nutrition/meet educational pre-requisites and completes a supervised practice internship in order to take and pass a national exam and maintains registration through continuing professional education; certified through the American Dietetic Association

    • Dietetic technician: a person who has completed a minimum of an associate’s degree and an approved dietetic technician program that includes a supervised practice experience; becomes registered by passing a national examination and maintains registration through continuing professional education

    • Nutritionist: a person who specializes in the study of nutrition


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    References

    • Understanding Nutrition, 10th Edition, Whitney & Rolfes

      Other sources to refer to:

    • The Science of Nutrition, Thompson, Manore, Vaughan

    • American Dietetic Association website

      • www.eatright.org


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    My Information

    Meredith Schneider, RD, LD

    512-820-8639

    Central Texas Nutrition Consultants

    512-469-7676

    [email protected]


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