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Measurement of Home Environment: The Family Care Indicators. Patrice Engle California Polytechnic State University Yuko Nonoyama-Tarumi UNICEF. Why Indicators for Family Care? . Caregiving Practices and Resources. Quality of Interactions with the Child. Child Development Outcomes.

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Measurement of Home Environment: The Family Care Indicators

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Measurement of home environment the family care indicators l.jpg

Measurement of Home Environment: The Family Care Indicators

Patrice Engle

California Polytechnic State University

Yuko Nonoyama-Tarumi

UNICEF


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Why Indicators for Family Care?

Caregiving Practices and Resources

Quality of Interactions with the Child

Child Development Outcomes


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Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS)

  • Household Survey

  • Nationally representative sample

  • www.childinfo.org

  • MICS 3 (2005)

    • 56 countries

    • Household module

      • household characteristics, education, water and sanitation, nutrition, child labor, support HIV/AIDS orphans, etc.

    • Women module

      • women’s characteristics, child mortality, maternal and newborn health, marriage/union, HIV/AIDS knowledge, female genital mutilation, sexual behavior, etc.

    • Children under five module

      • children’s characteristics, birth registration, early learning, breast feeding, immunization, anthropometry, malaria, etc.


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Development of Items

  • Phase I: Item identification

    • Literature review

    • Meeting of global experts (Nov, 2002)

  • Phase II: Item evaluation

    • Field tests in 7 countries (Spring, 2003)

      • Qualitative analyses: Focus groups (Content validity)

      • Quantitative analyses: Frequency analyses (Discrimination)

  • Phase III: Item selection

    • Meeting of global experts (Nov, 2003)


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Caregiving Practices

Quality of verbal interaction

Learning/stimulating activities

Limit setting and discipline techniques

Responsiveness and acceptance

Responsive feeding

Caregiving resources

Caregiver stress

Caregiver physical health

Caregiver knowledge

Alternate caregiver

Father’s involvement

Family cohesion

Social networks

Learning/stimulating materials

Domains selected


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Family Care Items in MICS3 (Core Early Learning Module: 52 countries)

Learning/stimulating activities

Engage in any of the activities with the child (in the past 3 days) [multiple responses]

(Asked to caretakers of children under 5 years old for each child)

(


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Family Care Items in MICS3(Optional Child Development Module: 33 countries)

Learning/stimulating materials

(Asked to caretakers of children under 5 years old once)

  • Number of books

  • Number of children’s books

  • Play materials that child play with at home

    • Household objects; Objects and materials found outside the living quarters; Homemade toys; Toys that come from a store; None

      Alternate caregiver (in the last week)

  • Number of times the child was left in the care of another child (younger than 10 years old)

  • Number of times the child was left alone


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Child Discipline Items in MICS3(Child Discipline Optional Module)

Setting Limits (Methods used in the past month)

(Asked to caretakers of children 2-14 years old for a randomly selected child)

  • Non-violent

    • Forbade something he/she liked

    • Explained why something was wrong

    • Gave him/her something else to do

  • Psychological aggression

    • Shouted, yelled at or screamed at him/her

    • Called him/her dumb, lazy, etc

  • Minor physical assault

    • Shook him/her

    • Spanked, hit or slapped him/her on the bottom with bare hand

  • Severe physical assault

    • Hit him/her on the body with something a belt, stick, etc

    • Hit or slapped him/her on the face, head or ears

    • Hit or slapped him/her on the hand, arm, or leg

    • Beat him/her with an implement

  • Do you believe that in order to bring up properly, you need to physically punish him/her


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ECD Indicators in MICS3


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Preliminary cross-national analyses

  • To what extent do countries differ in their level of family care?

  • To what extent is positive family care equally distributed within the country?


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Learning/stimulating activities (four or more) by wealth


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Non-children's books (three or more) by wealth


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Children's books (three or more) by wealth


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Inadequate care (left in the care of another child or left alone) by wealth


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How well do these scales work?

  • Item comparison across countries

  • Validation on the HOME and Bayley Scales

  • Validation within country data

  • Recommendations for next steps


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Descriptive data on activities by country

  • Selected three countries with publicly available data from different parts of the world

    • Kyrgyzstan (n=2987) Bangladesh (n=34710) and Sierra Leone (n=5904)

  • Examined activities separately to see which have reasonable variability and if they vary as expected


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Activities anyone did: Percent of households


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Sources of toys: percent of households


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Conclusions based on descriptive data

  • Differences by country are reasonable

  • All families do something

  • Some questions have little variability (e.g., taking child outside, play with child).


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Validity study: Bangladesh

  • 800 children at 18 months

    • HOME

    • Bayley MDI and PDI

    • Language Comprehension and Expression

  • 129 of them also measured at 12 months on same measures

  • 40 given 7-14 week test-retest on Activities and Toys

Grantham-McGregor, Hamadani, and Engle, 2008


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Measures

  • 6 activity items

    • Play – “play with toys” rather than “play”

  • Sources of toys

  • Variety of toys

  • Books

  • Childcare situation


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Reliability


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Associations of Activity Index with Outcome Measures (n=798)

+Controlling for maternal education, wealth, family size, birthweight, gestational age, paternal education, income, age, gender, other family care measures


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Means of MDI by Number of Family Activities controlling for age (N=800; 18 months)

ANOVA significant at p<.001


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Conclusion

  • Family Activity Index appears to be reliable and valid

  • Increases with MDI in a linear fashion – no clear cut-off

  • Sources of toys is not so strong

  • Variety of toys much stronger (not reported here)


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Validity assessment with MICS data: Bangladesh (N=34,710)

  • Internal consistency

  • Association of items with age

  • Associations with maternal education, household wealth, gender

  • Associations with two parent report measures: Do you do anything to prepare your child for school (3 and 4 only); and do you do things to develop your child’s intelligence

  • Value of individual activity questions


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Which items are related to age? Bangladesh, N= about 34,000


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Internal consistency of Index: Alpha = .734


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Correlations of items with SES measures controlling for age


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Conclusions

  • Family Activities Scale works quite well

  • Sources of toys functions less well

  • Need more work to define a cut-off point – four or more activities may not be the best


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Recommendations

  • Analyze role of fathers separately

  • Make a separate code for some activities such as “read books”

  • May revise wording on some questions

    • Could replace “take outside”

    • Might use “play with toys” rather than “play”

  • Complete analyses with the rest of the countries

  • Apply and use for Advocacy


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