Community Succession. Universal process of directional change in vegetation during ecological time. Recognized by a progressive change in the species composition of the community
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Page 496 opportunistic species.Top Down or Bottom Up?
Bottom Up Control resources control community
N V H P
Top Down Control Predators control the community
N V H P
Top down control = Trophic Cascade Model
Freshwater Pond For Example:
Phytoplankton Zooplankton Small Fish Large Fish
Remove large fish then small fish increase, zooplankton decreases and phytoplankton increases.
Effects will be propagated up and down food chain as a +/-
Page 471 opportunistic species.Keystone Species