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How to construct an evolutionary tree: Simplest way: the principle of parsimony Find the shortest number of evolutionary steps PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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How to construct an evolutionary tree: Simplest way: the principle of parsimony Find the shortest number of evolutionary steps to explain the differences between species. Example: an evolutionary tree for mammals Here is an unparsimonious evolutionary tree:

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How to construct an evolutionary tree: Simplest way: the principle of parsimony Find the shortest number of evolutionary steps

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How to construct an evolutionary tree:

Simplest way: the principle of parsimony

Find the shortest number of evolutionary steps

to explain the differences between species.


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Example: an evolutionary tree for mammals

Here is an unparsimonious evolutionary tree:

Chicken Bat Platypus Cat Kangaroo

lays eggs live birth, lays eggs live birth, live birth

placenta placenta


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Example: an evolutionary tree for mammals

Here is a parsimonious evolutionary tree:

Chicken Platypus Kangaroo Bat Cat

lays eggs lays eggs live birth live birth live birth

placenta placenta


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We can use an outgroup to decide which traits are

ancestral and which are derived.

Chicken Platypus Kangaroo Bat Cat

lays eggs lays eggs live birth live birth live birth

placenta placenta


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You can figure out how to build the tree by finding

shared derived characteristics.

Chicken Platypus Kangaroo Bat Cat

lays eggs lays eggs live birth live birth live birth

placenta placenta


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Look for shared derived characteristics

Foot pads

Feathery antennae


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Look for shared derived characteristics

Long proboscis

(mouth parts)


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Look for shared derived characteristics

Broken stripes

on abdomen


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Construct the evolutionary tree


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Construct the evolutionary tree


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Construct the evolutionary tree


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Construct the evolutionary tree


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broken stripes

on abdomen

long proboscis

foot pads

feathery

antennae

apricot

eyes

5th bristle


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Same thing, but with DNA:

ACTAAGT ACTAAGT ACGAAGT ACGTCGT AGGTCGT ACGTACT ACGTACG


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#6 C to G

#4 T to A

#3 G to T

#5 A to C

#1 A to C

#2 C to G

CCTAAGT ACTAAGT ACGAAGT ACGTCGT AGGTCGT ACGTACT ACGTACG


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erecta T G T C A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterT G C C T C A T T G T C C T G A G C T A

orena T G T C A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans T G C C T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri T A C C A C G T A G T C A T G A G T T A

yakuba T G C C A C G T A G C C A T G A G T T A

ananassae T G C C T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

(outgroup)

green is ancestral


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erecta TG T C A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTG C C T C A T T G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TG T C A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TG C C T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TA C C A C G T A G T C A T G A G T T A

yakuba TG C C A C G T A G C C A T G A G T T A

ananassae TG C C T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

(outgroup)

green is ancestral, red is derived


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erecta TGT C A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGC C T C A T T G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGT C A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGC C T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TAC C A C G T A G T C A T G A G T T A

yakuba TGC C A C G T A G C C A T G A G T T A

ananassae TGC C T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

(outgroup)

green is ancestral, red is derived


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

(outgroup)

green is ancestral, red is derived


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakuba simulans melanogaster


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakuba simulans melanogaster


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakuba simulans melanogaster


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakuba simulans melanogaster


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans


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erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogasterTGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans


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