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History and Development of Radio - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Radio. *Warning* Heavy Science Content Ahead. Baghdad battery – 250 BCE. Electricity was a heavy duty toy for decades, including Ben Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight.

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*Warning*Heavy Science Content Ahead



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Luigi Galvani - 1786 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight

  • Believed everything contained electricity

  • Looked for “animal magnetism”

  • Touched different metals to frogs’ legs which twitched


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Alessandro Volta - 1796 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight


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Alessandro Volta - 1796 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight

  • Volta took Galvani’s experiment and showed that it was the current produced by the different metals that caused the twitch

  • Built a pile of alternating sandwiches of zinc and copper in an acid and created electicity


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Hans Christian Oersted - 1820 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight


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Oersted’s experiment - 1820 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight

  • In a lecture in Copenhagen he performed an experiment to demonstrate there was no connection between electricity and magnetism by showing that an electric current passing through a wire wouldn’t affect a nearby compass needle


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William Sturgeon - 1825 turned on the current

  • Created the first electromagnet by wrapping wire around a soft iron bar and sending a current through the wire

  • Electricity can create magnetism


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Michael Faraday - 1826 turned on the current

  • Reversed Sturgeon’s experiment

  • Showed that magnetism could create an electric current


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Samuel F. B. Morse - 1838 turned on the current


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Johannes Mueller - 1840 and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


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  • Examined physical sensations and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

    • Can you feel colors

    • Can you hear shapes

    • Can you smell sounds

  • Discovered that each sense detects different things

  • We think this is obvious, but no one had proven it before. Remember “common sense”?


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Herman Hemholtz - 1857 and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


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  • Meuller’s pupil and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

  • Investigated hearing

  • Noticed sound produced vibrations


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  • Did the vibrations operate at different frequencies? and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

    • They did

    • Thus, sound traveled at different frequencies

  • Used an electromagnet to attract the arms of a tuning fork, causing it to vibrate and produce sound


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Leon Scott de Martinville - phonautograph - 1857 and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

  • Attached a bristle to a membrane at the end of a cone, set the bristle to touch a piece of smoked glass

  • Spoke into the cone

  • membrane vibrated to the sound and the bristle etched a wavy line onto the smoked glass


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The Telephone - 1876 and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

  • Scott’s membrane, Faraday’s electromagnet, Oersted’s and Sturgeon’s electromagnet, Morse’s wire and electrical current, Heimholtz’s vibration, Scott’s membrane


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Bell and Gray and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


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Samuel Morse and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


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Heinrich Hertz - 1886 and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


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  • Hemholtz’s pupil and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

  • Investigated whether electricity traveled in frequencies the way sound did


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Spark gap generator and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


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Hertz’ spark gap experiment and electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


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Demonstrated that electricity traveled through air at specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


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Guglielmo Marconi - 1894 specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


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Marconi radio specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


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Morse key specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


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Marconi and his radio specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


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Ionosphere specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


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Nikola Tesla specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


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Tesla coil - 1891 specific frequencies, just like it did through wires

  • Developed the first amplifier coil, the Tesla coil

  • Raised the voltage of an electrical current high enough to allow the air to conduct the current

  • Key to wireless transmission of radio waves


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Reginald Fessenden specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


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Ernst Alexanderson voice, just like on a telephone, could be carried by electrical wave of a radio signal


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  • Developed the Alexanderson Alternator, a machine capable of generating the power, up to 100,000 hertz, that Fessenden needed to piggyback voice onto radio waves

  • In Dec. 1906, Fessenden did the first good voice and music broadcast, going hundreds of miles

    • Poetry and a Bible reading

    • A woman singing opera

    • A violin playing a Christmas carol


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Lee de Forest generating the power, up to 100,000 hertz, that Fessenden needed to piggyback voice onto radio waves


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De Forest’s audion tube - 1904 generating the power, up to 100,000 hertz, that Fessenden needed to piggyback voice onto radio waves


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Edwin Howard Armstrong Alexanderson generator increased the electrical power


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  • Investigated the audion tube, figured out how it worked, and improved it

  • Developed “regeneration”

    • The signal was fed back into the tube over and over again, up to 20,000 times a second

    • Vastly increased the power of the tube to output the signal – it was an amplifier

    • Raise the level enough and the tube becomes a transmitter

    • Armstrong invented the ability to broadcast sound


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Armstrong’s superheterodyne then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity

  • Armstrong’s next invention was the superheterodyne


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Crystal Radio then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity


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David Sarnoff then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity


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  • Enamored of radio then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity

  • Saw the possibilities

  • Wrote the “Radio Music Box Memo” that outlined the commercial possibilities of radio


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RCA (Radio Corporation of America) then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity

  • After World War I

  • Four companies merged their patents to create RCA

    • American Marconi

    • General Electric

    • American Telephone & Telegraph

    • Westinghouse

  • Sarnoff named as commercial manager


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Radio stations soon opened all over the U.S. radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world

Including KWSC (now KWSU) in 1922, one of the first radio stations in the country


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Operas radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world

Concerts

Sports

News

Dramas

Comedies

Variety shows

Soap operas

Pretty much everything we get on TV today

Examples of programming


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Fibber McGee and Molly radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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Burns and Allen radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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Fred Allen radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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Abbott and Costello radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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Orson Welles - 1938 radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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Hindenburg disaster - 1937 radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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Edward R. Murrow radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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The Advent of Television radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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  • It was assumed that radio would be dead radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world

    • Audiences would watch TV instead of listening to the radio

    • TV took over so many of the radio programs

      • Soap operas

      • Dramas

      • Sitcoms

      • Sports

      • news


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Radio had a great advantage over TV – radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the worldPortability


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Take it anywhere radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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Even in the car radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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New kinds of programming radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world

  • Music

    • Top 40

    • Country

    • Rock

    • Easy listening

    • Golden oldies

  • Talk shows


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Howard Stern radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


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On the Right radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the worldRush Limbaugh Michael Savage


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On the Left radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the worldRachel Maddow Al Franken


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