THE INDIANA PREVENTION RESOURCE CENTER
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THE INDIANA PREVENTION RESOURCE CENTER. GIS in Prevention County Profiles Series, No. 3. Switzerland County, Indiana. Barbara Seitz de Martinez, PhD, MLS, CPP.

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THE INDIANA PREVENTION RESOURCE CENTER

GIS in Prevention County Profiles Series, No. 3

Switzerland County, Indiana

Barbara Seitz de Martinez, PhD, MLS, CPP

The Indiana Prevention Resource Center at Indiana University is funded, in part, by a contract with the Indiana Family and Social Services Administration, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, financially supported through HHS/Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant. The IPRC is operated by the Department of Applied Health Science and The School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation.


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GIS in Prevention County Profile Series, No. 3

  • Barbara Seitz de Martinez, PhD, MLS, CPP

  • Project Staff:

Ritika Bhawal, MPH

Solomon Briggs

Kyoungsun Heo, MPA

Srinivasa Konchada

Switzerland County, Indiana

Indiana Prevention Resource Center

Opinions expressed herein are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Trustees of Indiana University or the Division of Mental Health and Addiction. Indiana University accepts full Responsibility for the content of this publication. ©2005 The Trustees of Indiana University. Permission is extended to reproduce this County Profile for non-profit educational purposes. All other rights reserved.


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6.6 - 6.15 Archival Risk Factors

  • Introduction: Community Laws/Norms

  • HH Spending on Alcohol

  • HH Spending on Tobacco

  • Adult Tobacco Behavior

  • Tobacco Production

  • Intensity of Inspection (TRIP)

  • Gambling Locations

  • Adult Gambling Behaviors

  • Hoosier Lottery Statistics

  • Crime Statistics: Introduction

  • Crime Indices: Main Categories

  • Crime Indices: Specific Crimes

  • FBI UCR – All Arrests

  • FBI UCR – Juvenile Arrests

  • Alcohol Related Crashes

  • More Alcohol Related Crashes

Community Risk Factors: Laws & Norms

Community Risk Factors: Transitions & Mobility

  • Net Migration (Domestic and International)


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Introduction: Community Risk Factors

A child’s view of normal is critically impacted by the child’s environment: the sights, sounds, tastes, textures, and smells of the child’s world: “Infants participate, from birth on, in sociocultural activities that are committed to cultural goals and values . . .” (Keller, et al. 2004) If the child grows up seeing drugs and drug use portrayed in a positive manner on local billboards and local television and modeled at home and elsewhere in the child’s community, the presence of drugs (and hence potential availability) and use of drugs easily becomes the child’s norm. In this circumstance logic suggests it would be “norm-al” for the child to have the expectation that later in life he or she, too, for better or worse, may use drugs. As success tends to beget success, and good parenting practices tend to be replicated by the children raised in that environment, so unfortunately, those who are abused are more likely to become abusers, and those raised in a climate of drug use are more likely to become users.

The smell of cigarettes, the feel of icy beer bottles and of delicate wine glasses, song lyrics glamorizing drug use, and the over-use of over-the-counter or prescription medications to eliminate every small discomfort creates a notion of normal that impacts the child’s expectations of human behavior, including his or her own. In some instances, it can be difficult to separate family norms and community norms. Many factors contribute to the creation of community norms, including family traditions, public policies, and law enforcement practices. In general, community norms will be the outcome of the beliefs and practices of all the community’s governmental, educational, social, religious, and business enterprises.

Drug use modeling by adults in a community creates an environment that is more hospitable and encouraging of drug use by youth. This modeling takes place within and outside of the home. Since the statistics don’t separate adults from family settings from other adults, we have included adult behaviors with regard to drugs as a community indicator and simply mention it again in the context of family indicators. Still, clearly, this information from a community has strong implications for family settings as well, since one could assume that a significant number of those adults live in family settings. Each County Profile contains several maps and tables comparing the block groups in a county for the counts and percents of adults who smoke cigarettes or cigars, drink alcohol, or gamble. Where possible, indicator data is given in terms of per household amounts.

Heide Keller, et al., 2004 “The Bio-Culture of Parenting: Evidence from Five Cultural Communities,” Parenting: Science and Practice 4/1 (2004):25-50.


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6.6 Household Spending on Alcohol

The following table presents per household spending on alcohol for the year for this county, the state and the nation.


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Map: Spending on Beer/Ale for Home

Indiana Prevention Resource Center

AGS, Consumer Spending,

2004 est., 2005


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6.7 Household Spending on Tobacco

The following table shows per household spending on tobacco products. To give a better perspective we will compare this figure to household spending on miscellaneous reading materials and personal insurance.


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6.8 Tobacco Production

Many counties in Indiana produce tobacco. Economic dependence upon tobacco influences community norms regarding smoking. It is therefore important to take into account which counties produce tobacco, the prevalence of production, number of farms producing tobacco, acres in tobacco production, and pounds of tobacco harvested. If the county does not produce tobacco, the rest of this page will be empty.


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6.9 Youth Access to Tobacco

  • The IPRC is grateful to Sergeant Poindexter, State Director of the Indiana Tobacco Retailer Inspection Program (TRIP)and to Desiree Goetze, Coordinator of TRIP at the Indiana Prevention Resource Center, and to the staff and police officers of TRIP for all the support they have given to this project.

  • The IPRC has studied the TRIP data generously made available by the Indiana State Excise Police and has created two additional statistical measurements:

    • for the intensity of inspections (the number of inspections relative to the total number of outlets);

    • for the number of inspections per capita for the population of youth most likely to seek access to tobacco, (i.e., youth ages 10-17).

Intensity of inspection can be viewed as one of many possible indicators of the degree of a county’s involvement in activities to create or maintain a community norm that youth access to tobacco is not tolerated.


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6.9 Intensity of Inspection (TRIP)

This table presents summary information relevant to the Tobacco Retail Inspection Program (TRIP) and tobacco access for minors. The Intensity of Inspection is one indicator of the degree of determination to establish and maintain a social norm of “no tolerance” for the sale of tobacco to minors and youth access to tobacco. This table also includes rankings of key variables.


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6.10 Gambling Casinos & Race Tracks

The presence of gambling establishments -- like the presence of tobacco and alcohol outlets, billboards and other forms of advertising – provides information on community environment and, because of the relationship between gambling and ATOD use, would appear to be an indicator of risk for ATOD problems in a community. Below is a listing of casinos and no horse-racing establishments located in this county.


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6.11a Adult Gambling Behavior

Like the modeling of smoking and drinking, gambling by adults sets a tone for youth expectations about what it means to be an adult. This report includes maps and tables detailing gambling behaviors by persons 18 and older. The following tables describe gambling and related leisure activities by persons ages 18 and over. Also included is a ranking for any casino gambling.


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Casino Gambling

Indiana Prevention Resource Center

Source: AGS Consumer Behavior, 2004 (2005)


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6.11b Adult Gambling Behavior

The following table compares the percent of households which engaged in leisure activities related to gambling (playing bingo, playing cards, and attending horseraces) in this county compared to the state and nation.


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Playing Bingo

Indiana Prevention Resource Center

Source: AGS Consumer Behavior, 2004 (2005)


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6.11c Gambling: Hoosier Lottery Sales

The following statistics show Hoosier Lottery sales by zip code for this county from the fiscal year.


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6.12 Crime Statistics: Introduction

People prefer to reside and businesses prefer to locate where they feel safe to move about, to study and to work. Levels of criminal activity in an area constitute an environmental influence on many aspects of life. People plan their lives taking into account levels of danger associated with activities. How late at night is it safe to be out? on foot? by car? alone? with a group?

For a child, the nature of their environment and the behaviors of their family, friends, neighbors, classmates, and community members strongly contribute to the child’s view of the world and of human nature, and to the child’s expectations for his or her own future behaviors and fate. If people close to the child model criminal behaviors or are often victims of the same, the child will likely hold expectations, including fears, of encountering similar future circumstances.

Hence crime statistics are a useful insight into the character of a place and are important to consider in prevention planning. A prevention program needs to be conducted in a safe place and at a time when it is safe for people to attend. The prevention professionals planning the program could consider specific activities designed to confront, enhance, or offer alternatives to norms and role modeling prevalent in the child’s world.

Data about crimes, arrests and convictions is not collected in any one central location in the state of Indiana at this time.


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One of the best sources of data available for Indiana at this time is the Crime Risk database published by AGS, who use the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report. Because the level and methods of reporting information to the FBI vary by jurisdiction, information about specific crimes should be viewed as a general indicator rather than for exact precision or exact comparisons.

The AGS Crime Risk Index describes the risk of various types of crime in a given geographic area (e.g., city or state) by comparing the rate of crime in that location to the rate of crime in the nation as a whole. The crime rate for the U.S. is set to 100 for all crimes. Hence a rate of 200 means that the risk of crime in that place is twice as high as for the nation as a whole. (Think of these numbers not as counts of criminal incidents, but as degrees of risk. Hence, an index of 200 means that while the risk of this crime is x per 1000 persons for the nation as a whole, it is 2x per 1000 for the community in question).The following table shows the Crime Indices for Total Crime, Property Crime and Personal Crime. This table shows indices for this county, compared to Indiana and the nation.

6.12a Crime Indices


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The following table shows the ranking of this county among Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

6.12a Crime Indices -- Rankings


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Map: Total Crime Indices Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Above US (7), 101.55-208

Above IN (10), 93.55-208

Top Quarter (22), 56-208

Mid Range (48), 20-56

Lowest Quarter (22), 7-20

Bottom Quarter, Middle Range, Highest Quarter (above 56, above IN & over US)

AGS, Crime Indices

2004 (2005)

Indiana Prevention Resource Center


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Map: Personal Crime Indices Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Above US (2), 101.55-183

Above IN (6), 74.55-183

Top Quarter (22), 42-183

Mid Range (46), 17-42

Lowest Quarter (24), 7-17

Bottom Quarter; Mid Range (17-42); Top Quarter (above 42, above IN, above US)

AGS, Crime Indices

2004 (2005)

Indiana Prevention Resource Center


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Map: Property Crime Indices Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Above US (9), 101.55-194

Above IN (12), 95.55-194

Top Quarter (23), 64-194

Mid Range (46), 19-64

Lowest Quarter (23), 4-19

Bottom Quarter, Mid Range, Top Quarter (includes over IN & over US)

AGS, Crime Indices

2004 (2005)

Indiana Prevention Resource Center


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6.12b Crime Indices – Specific Crimes Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The following table shows the Crime Indices for specific property and personal crimes. The method is to compare the risk in a given location to the general crime risk for the nation as a whole. We see that in the context of the U.S., Indiana is generally safer than other places for risk of robbery, but is more dangerous for risk of murder. See the Appendix Glossary for definitions of these crimes. This table shows indices for this county, compared to Indiana and the nation (which is the point of comparison) and rankings comparing this county to the other 92 counties.


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6.12b Crime Indices – Specific Crimes – Rankings Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The following table shows the ranking of this county among Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.


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6.13a FBI UCR: All Arrests Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The following data is from the FBI Uniform Crime Report as published by the University of Virginia Library website. Below are data for all arrests for crimes, including drug arrests, for the indicated year and rankings comparing this county to the other 92 counties.


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6.13b FBI UCR: Juvenile Arrests Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The following data is from the FBI Uniform Crime Report as published by the University of Virginia Library website. Below are data for juvenile arrests for crimes, including drug arrests, for the indicated year and rankings comparing this county to the other 92 counties.


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6.14 Alcohol-Related Crashes Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The Indiana Council on Drugged and Dangerous Driving through the Indiana Criminal Justice Institute publishes crash data for each county. The most recent of data on drivers involved in fatal crashes by blood alcohol content of the driver are included in the following tables:


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6.14 Alcohol-Related Crashes Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The Indiana Council on Drugged and Dangerous Driving through the Indiana Criminal Justice Institute publishes crash data for each county. The following table compares figures for 1994 and 2001 for the estimated percent of alcohol-related fatalities and drivers with BAC 0.08 or greater in fatal crashes.


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Transitions Indiana’s 92 counties, and the ranking of Indiana relative to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

& Mobility

6.15 Net Migration

Periods of transition and frequent mobility are risk factors for substance abuse and other problems. Examples include the period of transition from middle school to high school, and from high school to college or work. Moving creates a period of transition and places a person at higher risk, e.g., moving from one neighborhood to another, from place to place or from job to job, or from incarceration to life in the community. For studies of a local neighborhood, the Department of Education web site offers information on retention and drop-out or transfers from neighborhood schools. The IYI web site offers data for the county on graduation rates, drop out rates, etc.

Community Risk Factors: Transitions & Migration

An excellent indicator of the “transitions and mobility” indicator is the figure for net migration. Data for domestic and international migration from the U.S. Census Bureau is summarized in the following table.


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