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Strong foundations. Early childhood care and education. UNGEI meeting. Cairo 12 November 2006. Education for All Dakar Goals and Millennium Development Goals. EFA Goals. MDGs. Expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education Universal primary education by 2015

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Slide1 l.jpg

Strong foundations

Early childhood care and education

UNGEI meeting

Cairo12 November 2006


Education for all dakar goals and millennium development goals l.jpg
Education for All Dakar Goals and Millennium Development Goals

EFA Goals

MDGs

  • Expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education

  • Universal primary education by 2015

  • Learning and life skills programmes for youth and adults

  • 50% increase in adult literacy rates by 2015

  • Gender parity by 2005 and gender equality by 2015

  • Improving quality of education

  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

  • Achieve universal primary education

  • Promote gender equality and empower women

  • Reduce child mortality, and other health goals

  • Improve maternal health

No country in need should be denied international assistance

1


Efa where do we stand l.jpg

Far from EFA

(EDI below 0.80)

Intermediate position

(EDI between

0.80 and 0.94)

EFA achieved or close

(EDI between

0.95 and 1.00)

19

8

1

4

11

1

2

4

2

6

3

3

1

2

17

18

6

2

15

50

47

28

EFA: Where do we stand?

Out of 125 countries, 47 have achieved the EFA goals.

Countries showing the greatest progress are in the lowest scoring group

Excludes many countries far from goals, e.g. those in conflict

Total

2


More and more children are starting school l.jpg

1999

2004

Arab States

Central/East.

Europe

N. America/

West. Europe

East Asia/

Pacific

Central Asia

Sub-Saharan

Africa

Latin America/

Caribbean

South/West

Asia

80

100

120

140

Gross intake rate

in primary education (%)

More and more children are starting school

Sharp increases in Grade 1 access in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia

3


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Arab States

Central/Eastern

Europe

Central Asia

East Asia/Pacific

Latin

America/Caribbean

North America/

Western Europe

South/West Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa

0.80

0.90

1.00

1.10

Gender Parity Index

in Gross Intake Rate

in primary education

Trend benefiting girls

  • Global gender parity index up from 0.92 in 1999 to 0.94 in 2004

  • Rapid progress in countries with low enrolment ratios and high gender disparities

  • Mauritania, Malawi, Qatar and Uganda among countries that achieved gender parity between 1999 and 2004

4


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Sub-Saharan

Arab States

South/West

Latin America

Centr./East.

N. America/

Central Asia

East Asia/

Africa

Asia

Caribbean

Europe

West. Europe

Pacific

Primary education

1.1

Gender parity

1.0

1999

2004

GPI in GER

0.9

0.8

0.7

Gender parity in primary

  • About two-thirds of countries out of 181 with data have achieved gender parity in primary education

  • Gaps still concentrated in Arab States, South and West Asia and Sub Saharan Africa: roughly 90 girls for every 100 boys

5


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77 million children still not in school

Drop of 20 million since 1999, mainly in South Asia

  • 117 girls out of school for every 100 boys

  • Marked exclusion in Arab States and South and West Asia

  • But rural residence, household poverty and mother’s lack of education are more determining factors

6


Who is out of school rural poor uneducated mother l.jpg
Who is out-of-school?Rural, poor, uneducated mother

Out-of-school children by schooling experience

7


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100

80

60

40

20

Survival rates to last grade (%)

Cohort completion rates (%)

0

Mali

Niger

Nepal

Saudi

Togo

Benin

Oman

Bolivia

Ghana

Algeria

Eritrea

Kuwait

Belarus

Panama

Rwanda

Burundi

Ecuador

Morocco

Lesotho

Mongolia

Lebanon

Myanmar

Dominica

Mauritius

Colombia

Lao P. D.

Nicaragua

Tajikistan

Swaziland

Mauritania

Barbados

Guatemala

Cameroon

Azerbaijan

Costa Rica

Bangladesh

Madagascar

Cape Verde

Kazakhstan

Too few pupils completeprimary school

In addition to increasing access, improving retention is a key to reducing out-of-school children

8


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Girls’ better completion

Almost everywhere except Sub-Saharan Africa, girls are more likely to stay in primary school longer than boys

9


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Needed: more trained teachers

  • Sub-Saharan Africa needs to recruit at least 1.6 million more teachers to reach UPE by 2015

  • Serious shortages in rural areas

  • Too few female teachers in countries with low enrolment of girls

  • Slight improvement in pupil-teacher ratios in most regions between 1999 and 2004

  • Only slight increase in % of trained teachers

10


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pre-primary

primary

100

80

% Female teachers

60

40

East Asia

Pacific

Central Asia

South/West

Arab States

Asia

Sub-Saharan

Africa

Latin America

Caribbean

Central/Eastern

Western Europe

North America/

Europe

Recruiting female teachers

  • In pre-primary nearly all teachers are women

  • Lack of primary school female teachers in regions where largest gender disparities persist

11


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Secondary education

1.1

Gender parity

1.0

GPI in GER

0.9

0.8

1999

2004

0.7

Centr./East.

Sub-Saharan

Arab States

South/West

Latin America

N. America/

Central Asia

East Asia/

Africa

Asia

Caribbean

Europe

West. Europe

Pacific

Secondary parity

  • Only one-third of countries have achieved parity at the secondary level

  • Gender differences greater than in primary education

  • Low secondary enrolment ratios: disparities at expense of girls

  • High secondary enrolment ratios: disparities at the expense of boys

12


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Continued barriers to schooling

Multiple sources of exclusion must be overcome through educational and financial support

  • Poverty

  • Direct and indirect costs of education: stipends, scholarships to increase access

  • Distance to school

  • Language and ethnicity

  • School environment

  • Social exclusion

  • Cultural barriers: role in home and in society

13


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Towards gender equality

Gender parity in education does not always mean gender equality

  • Public policy must promote equal rights and treatment of girls

  • Reducing gender bias in curricula and textbooks

  • Gender sensitive teacher training and classroom pedagogy

  • Confronting sexual violence and harassment

14


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Literacy remains elusive

One in five adults – 781 million – lack basic literacy skills – one in four women

The vast majority live in South and West Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia

15


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The ECCE imperative:Young children under threat

  • Child born in developing world has 40% chance of living in extreme poverty

  • 31% of children in developing countries moderately or severely stunted

  • 10.5 million under-5 children die each year, most from preventable diseases

  • High under-5 mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and South/West Asia

  • Each day 1,800 children infected with HIV

  • Children in emergency, conflict and post-conflict situations highly vulnerable

16


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ECCE: strong foundations

“Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children”

  • RightsUN Convention on the Rights of the Child

  • DevelopmentPoverty reduction and the MDG health and education goals

  • EducationFuture participation and achievement

  • EquityReducing social inequality

17


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Thinkingcomprehensively

Holistic programmes encompass:

Nutrition

  • Nutrition

  • Health and hygiene

  • Physical and emotional development

  • Social skills

  • Education

18


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Iron, nutrition, deworming and psycho-social stimulation impact on learning

Combining nutrition and education has larger and longer-lasting impact

In some cases, impact higher for girls

Access to primary school on time, especially for girls

Retention in primary school

Lower repetition

Better language development

Higher achievement

Early childhood, nutrition and education

Nutrition and EducationReinforce Each Other

Early Childhood Participation Improves Later Education

19


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Acting early pays off impact on learning

‘It is a rare public policy initiative that promotes fairness and social justice and at the same time promotes productivity in the economy and in society at large. Investing in disadvantaged young children is such a policy.’

  • Most rigorous studies on benefits come from developed countries

  • U.S. High/Scope Perry study of low-income African-American children

    • higher IQ at age 5

    • enhanced success at school

    • higher earning at age 40

  • High returns to programmes in India, Egypt, Colombia, Bolivia

  • Returns greatest for poorest and most disadvantaged children

James Heckman, Nobel economics prizewinner

20


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A diverse field impact on learning

  • Ages 0 to 8

  • Informal provision by parents or extended family, at home, family or community settings

  • Ages 0 to 2

  • Organized / non-formal care and education

  • Support to parents / Parental leave

  • Ages 3+

  • Pre-primary and non-formal education for 3+

Providers

  • Governments

  • Private Sector (high private provision in Africa and Arab States, relatively high in Latin America/Caribbean)

  • International NGOs

  • Community-based organizations

21


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Programmes for the under-3s impact on learning

The lack of programmes for the under-3s partly reflects assumptions about women’s domestic role, out of step with current realities

Countries with at least one formal programme for children under 3 in 2005 (%)

22


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Developed/transition countries impact on learning

Latin America/Caribbean

East Asia/Pacific

South and West Asia

Arab States

Sub-Saharan Africa

Regional trends in pre-primary

A three-fold increase in pre-primary enrolments over 30 years

More than 1 in 3 children now enrolled but huge regional differences

23


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Drivers for ECCE impact on learning

  • Historical forces

  • Industrialization and demand for women workers

  • From private charity to public responsibility

  • More women at work outside agriculture

  • Strongly associated with participation in pre-school programmes

  • Migration and urbanization

  • Changing household structures

    Fewer extended families

    More one-parent households

  • Research on child development

24


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Women in labour force drives ECCE provision impact on learning

High female employment generates demand for ECCE

25


Poverty limits access l.jpg

80 impact on learning

60

40

Attendance rates (%)

20

0

Haiti

India

Niger

Egypt

Kenya

Bolivia

Uganda

Lesotho

Rwanda

Senegal

Lao PDR

Mongolia

Colombia

Viet Nam

Myanmar

Tajikistan

Nicaragua

Cameroon

Venezuela

Philippines

Azerbaijan

Madagascar

D. R. Congo

Sierra Leone

U. R. Tanzania

Trinidad/Tobago

Poverty limits access

  • Higher attendance

  • for children from

  • richer households

  • Lower attendance

  • among poor who

  • would benefit most

Poorer households

Richer households

26


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Arab States impact on learning

Central/East.

Europe

Central Asia

East Asia/

Pacific

South/West

Asia

N. America/

West. Europe

Sub-Saharan

Africa

Latin America/

Caribbean

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

The gender factor

Gender parity line

  • The gender gap in early childhood programme enrolments is small in most countries

  • Notable improvement in Arab States but disparities higher than at other education levels

  • Afghanistan, Morocco, Pakistan and Yemen have lowest GPIs in pre-primary

GPI in GER in

pre-primary education

27


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Why the policy neglect? impact on learning

Early childhood is still not a priority in many developing countries

  • Slow response to social and economic trends

  • Role of the family vs role of the state: unclear boundaries

  • Diversity of sector makes coordination difficult

  • Child development research results not well known

  • Lack of rigorous studies in developing countries

  • Governments prioritize primary education

  • International aid focuses on other education levels

28


Strong policies for young children what is needed l.jpg

Top-level political endorsement impact on learning

A national early childhood policy grouping multiple players

A lead agency to coordinate early childhood policies

Integration in national development plans and PRSPs

Staffing, training and standards for all providers

Explicit provision for disadvantaged and vulnerable

Partnerships: NGOs, private sector and international agencies

Financing: higher spending, targeting and more aid

Strong policies for young children:What is needed?

Policy Environment

Policy Elements

30


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Challenging gender stereotypes impact on learning

ISSUES

POLICIES

  • Changing curriculum and teacher attitudes

  • Changes in staffing policy: encouraging more men to work in EC programmes

  • More women in administrative and leadership conditions

  • Delegations to investigate gender equality in pre-schools (Sweden)

  • Incentives for schools promoting gender equality

  • Do pre-school programmes promote gender specific expectations?

  • Teaching materials and games often promote gender stereotypes – building blocks vs housekeeping corner!

  • Different treatment by teachers

31


Promoting school readiness l.jpg

Mother tongue instruction impact on learning

Good communications between schools and parents, involving parents as resource people

Integration of ECCE with primary curriculum (Jamaica, France, Guyana)

Connections between teaching and learning styles (Pakistan programme)

Continuity between home and school (home visits, readiness programmes)

Special support for disadvantaged children who have not followed pre-school (Guatemala)

Promoting school readiness

ECCE can ease the transition to primary schooling, especially for girls

32


Financing ecce finding the balance l.jpg
Financing ECCE: impact on learningFinding the balance

How to allocate limited resources to children most in need?

Funding is public and private

Less than 10% of public educationspending goes to pre-primary

Even in OECD countries, parents’share can run up to 60%

Universal coverage + extra supportto disadvantaged children (OECD)

Income targeting

Geographical targeting (remote areas,urban slums)

Targeting specific groups: disabled,those in emergency situations

A universal policy with targeted spending on most disadvantaged?

33


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ECCE: A low priority for donors impact on learning

Almost all donors allocate to pre-primaryless than 10% of what they give to primary Bilateral donors give priority to centre-based programmes for children from age 3

34


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Action Now! impact on learning

Clear progress but more effort is needed

  • Act on all goals: early childhood, literacy and primary school with gender integrated in all policies

  • Act with urgency: 2005 gender parity target missed

  • Emphasize equity and inclusion, with consistent focus on gender

  • Increase public spending, and focus it better

  • Increase aid to basic education, and allocate where most needed

  • Move ECCE up national and international agendas

  • Increase public financing for ECCE, and target it

  • Upgrade the ECCE workforce: better training and pay, more women in leadership positions

35


Contact information l.jpg
Contact Information impact on learning

EFA Global Monitoring Report Team

c/o UNESCO

7, place de Fontenoy

75352 Paris 07

France

[email protected]

www.efareport.unesco.org


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