Changing air quality standards and sustainable air quality planning for communities
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Changing Air Quality Standards and Sustainable Air Quality Planning for Communities . Jim McGraw ( [email protected] ) (515) 242-5167 Iowa DNR – Air Quality Bureau 7900 Hickman Rd, Suite 1 Windsor Heights, IA 50324. 2010 ISAC Fall School of Instruction November 18, 2010 . Overview.

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Changing Air Quality Standards and Sustainable Air Quality Planning for Communities

Jim McGraw ([email protected]) (515) 242-5167

Iowa DNR – Air Quality Bureau

7900 Hickman Rd, Suite 1

Windsor Heights, IA 50324

2010 ISAC Fall School of Instruction

November 18, 2010


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Overview Planning for Communities

  • Air Quality Standards Overview

  • PM2.5 and Ozone NAAQS

  • Community Air Quality Planning Assistance

  • Cleaner Air, Better Communities

  • Questions/Discussion

2


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Air Quality Standards Planning for Communities

  • Clean Air Act

    • Requires the U.S. EPA to establish health based standards for criteria pollutants

    • Called National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    • Establishes maximum concentrations of pollutants that are acceptable in the general air we breathe

    • Primary NAAQS: Protect public health with margin of safety

    • Secondary NAAQS: Protect public welfare, including soil, crops, and vegetation


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Air Quality Standards (cont.) Planning for Communities

  • Six criteria pollutants

    • Ground-level ozone (O3)

    • Particulate Matter (PM)

    • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

    • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

    • Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    • Lead (Pb)

  • Particulate matter broken into two size fractions, PM10 & PM2.5

    • Fractions measured in microns


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Some Groups Are More at Risk Planning for Communities

People with heart or lung disease

Conditions make them vulnerable

Older adults

Greater prevalence of heart and lung disease

Children

More likely to be active

Breathe more air per pound

Bodies still developing


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Designations – 3 Classes Planning for Communities


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Nonattainment Implications Planning for Communities

  • Air is not always healthy to breathe

  • More stringent major source permitting requirements

    • Install most stringent emissions controls achievable

    • Increases in emissions must be offset with emissions reductions elsewhere in the nonattainment area

  • State must submit plan to EPA detailing how attainment will be achieved, could include

    • Case-by-case emissions reductions strategies

    • New rules, such as stricter emissions standards

    • Reductions from smaller sources, if cumulative improvements

  • Potential sanctions for failing to meet standard within the appropriate timeframe

  • Effects economic development


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Many different sources Planning for Communities

contribute to

air pollution


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Particulate Matter: What is It? Planning for Communities A complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets

~ 1/30th the width of a human hair


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Characteristics of Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Planning for Communities

Combustion, particles and gases

  • Sulfates

  • Nitrates

  • Ammonium

  • Organics

  • Carbon

  • Metals

    Sources: Local & Regional

  • Direct PM2.5: Combustion Coal, oil, gasoline,

    diesel, wood combustion

  • Secondary PM2.5: Transformation of SO2 and NOx

    Exposure/Lifetime:

  • Lifetime days to weeks

  • Regional distribution over urban scale to 100s of miles


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PM2.5 Standards Planning for Communities

  • Fine particulate matter first regulated in 1997

  • The 24-hour standard was revised in 2006


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Ground Level Ozone Planning for Communities

  • Photochemical smog is a man-made pollutant

  • Motor vehicleexhaust, industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents contain NOx and VOCs that help form ozone


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Ozone Standards Planning for Communities

  • Primary Ozone Standard: Proposed 8-hour value in range from 0.060-0.070 ppm (current value 0.075 ppm)

  • Promulgation due late December 2010

  • Implementation Rules:

    • Expect proposal December 2010

    • Final implementation rules anticipated by Spring 2011


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2007-2009 Ozone Design Values Planning for Communities


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Why Do Communities Need Air Quality Planning Assistance? Planning for Communities

  • Increasing NAAQS stringency

  • More federal regs that affect small businesses, schools, and local government facilities

  • Far reaching effects of local decisions

  • Less state and federal resources

  • Identification of real world problems caused by poor community planning


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Path to Sustainable Community Planning for Communities Air Quality Planning

  • Develop new stakeholder relationships

  • Provide improved access to current tools

  • Identify and create new tools and products

  • Expand education and outreach


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Community Air Quality Planning Planning for Communities Broad Objectives

  • Plan community growth in a manner that considers and minimizes air quality impacts and related issues.

  • Address current air quality concerns during planning process to reduce uncertainty regarding air quality resource limitations.

  • Ensure opportunities for continued future community growth and development.


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Support SMART Planning Planning for Communities

  • SF2265, signed by Governor

    • Smart planning principles (10)

    • Comprehensive planning elements (13)

    • Establishes guidelines for the adoption of comprehensive plans and land development regulations

    • Establishes smart planning task force

      • http://www.rio.iowa.gov/smart_planning/index.html

  • Includes air quality provisions


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Cleaner Air, Better Communities Planning for Communities

  • Joint DED/DNR project

    • Started: Early 2010

    • Rollout: Planned late November 2010

  • DED benchmarking

    • Understand current process and players

    • Gage level of air knowledge

    • Identify needs and delivery methods

  • DOT also assisting


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Cleaner Air, Better Communities Objectives Planning for Communities

  • Assist decision process for siting new residences, schools, day care centers, playground, medical-related facilities, and industrial parks;

  • Identify ways to prevent or reduce potential air pollution impacts;

  • Facilitate access to air quality data and evaluation tools for land use decision-making;

  • Encourage collaboration between land use planners and local and state air quality programs to reduce community exposure to pollution impacts;

  • Promote active public involvement in the air quality/land use decision-making process.


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Cleaner Air, Better Communities Audience Planning for Communities

  • Agencies responsible for land use planning and air quality

  • Private developers

  • Federal, state and regional agencies that fund, regulate and influence environmental policies and programs affected by land use policies

  • Public and community organizations

  • Community residents


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Cleaner Air, Better Communities Planning for Communities Web-based Toolkit

  • Air Quality and Land Use Planning Guide

    • Promote informed decision making on air quality and public health

    • Improve understanding of how air quality is impacted, regulated, and monitored

    • Support city smart planning principles

    • Provide questions and criteria to consider when reviewing new projects or developing comprehensive plans

  • Fact Sheets

    • Standards, health impacts, air quality regulation

  • Air agency contacts


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Cleaner Air, Better Communities Planning for Communities

  • Links to other resources

    • Air pollution monitoring data

    • Voluntary reduction measures

    • Classroom tools

    • Community concerns

      • Open Burning, Outdoor Wood Boilers, Air Toxics, School Bus Emissions


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Changes in personal behavior can help reduce air pollution and it’s effects

  • Reduce Air Pollution by:

    • Driving less (combine trips, take a bus or bike…)

    • Drive smart (regular maintenance, newer cars emit less, fuel after 5 pm, cruise, don’t idle…)

    • Use air friendly products (mow late, low/no volatiles paints, don’t store gasoline)

    • Reduce/Reuse/Recycle

    • Save energy (turn off lights, close blinds, driving less…)

  • Protect your health:

    • Monitor the Air Quality Index (AQI) on IowaCleanAir.com

    • Don’t exercise out of doors on unhealthy air days

    • Check on the elderly and children on high air pollution days

    • Work with your physician to develop an asthma plan if needed

    • Reduce Air Pollution…


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Changes in Business Practices that can help reduce air pollution and it’s effects

  • Reduce Air Pollution by:

    • Transportation options for employees (bus passes, carpooling vans, telecommuting, etc.)

    • Use air friendly products (low/no volatiles paints, lower emitting fuels)

    • Reduce/Reuse/Recycle

    • Save energy (turn off lights, close blinds, driving less…)

    • Developing action plans to reduce pollution on alert days

  • Green Business Plans:

    • Pollution Prevention Projects

    • Fleet management (vehicle selection, maintenance, idle reduction policy, etc.)

    • Green Space Planning

    • Environmental Management Systems

    • Integration of Environmental & Business Planning

    • Sustainable Community Planning


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Questions/Discussion pollution and it’s effects

  • www.iowacleanair.com

  • http://www.epa.gov/air/


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