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Digital Photography 101 for Library Applications. Instructor: Jeanne Moje [email protected] An Infopeople Workshop Winter 2004. Workshop Agenda. Digital Camera Overview Hints on Taking Photos Who Owns That Image? Photo Design and Repair Managing Your Digital Photo Collection.

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Digital photography 101 for library applications l.jpg

Digital Photography 101for Library Applications

Instructor:

Jeanne Moje

[email protected]

An Infopeople Workshop

Winter 2004


Workshop agenda l.jpg
Workshop Agenda

  • Digital Camera Overview

  • Hints on Taking Photos

  • Who Owns That Image?

  • Photo Design and Repair

  • Managing Your Digital Photo Collection



Why digital photography l.jpg
Why Digital Photography?

  • Advantage over film cameras

    • Immediate feedback / results

    • Don’t need to develop film

    • Ease of image manipulation

  • Add interest to your web site

    • Publicize and document library events

    • Pictures are worth a thousand words

  • Provide material for library displays


Overview of digital cameras l.jpg
Overview of Digital Cameras

  • Lens types

  • Case sizes

  • Pixel depth

  • Zoom power

  • Storage media types

    • Older memory formats

    • Newer memory formats

    • Alternative memory formats


Lens types l.jpg
Lens Types

  • Regular fixed lens

    • with or without zoom

  • Digital SLR (single-lens reflex)

    • More control over depth of field

    • Interchangeable lenses

  • Large format

    • For incredible detail in a large image

    • Huge file sizes


Digital camera case sizes l.jpg
Digital Camera Case Sizes

  • Listed in order of price

    • Compact

    • Micro

    • Medium

    • Large


Pixel depth l.jpg
Pixel Depth

  • Why would you want more pixels?

    • 3 megapixels

    • 4 megapixels

    • 5 megapixels

    • Foveon technology 3.4

      • Three layers to each pixel

      • Equivalent to 10 megapixels


Pixel print comparison l.jpg
Pixel Print Comparison

  • To maintain quality, choose higher megapixel settings if you need larger print sizes

    • 1 megapixels ≅ 4 x 6

    • 2 megapixels ≅ 5 x 7

    • 3 megapixels ≅ 8 x 11

    • 4 megapixels ≅ 11 x 14

    • 5 megapixels ≅ 12 x 16


Zoom power l.jpg
Zoom Power

  • Optical zoom changes the image by moving the lens

  • Digital zoom changes the image by cropping (enlarging the pixels)

  • Interchangeable lenses on SLR digital cameras – expensive!

    • Gives you more shutter speed control

    • Wide-angle, panoramic, specialty lenses


Types of storage media l.jpg
Types of Storage Media

  • Some can be used in multiple portable devices

    • Digital cameras, notebooks, PDAs, music players, car stereo

  • Standardize on a flash memory type

    • Secure Digital (SD) - up and coming

    • Compact Flash (CF) - still a good choice


Older memory formats l.jpg
Older Memory Formats

  • These formats are being phased out

    • SmartMedia (SM)

    • MultiMediaCard (MMC)

  • Mini-CDs, floppy disks

  • Compact Flash (CF)

    • More devices use CF that any other media type

    • High capacity


Newer memory formats l.jpg
Newer Memory Formats

  • Memory stick (MS)

    • only used by Sony

  • xD-Picture Card

    • Fujifilm, Olympus

    • Projected highest capacity

  • Secure Digital (SD)

    • Projected highest use

    • Broadest support


Alternative memory formats l.jpg
Alternative Memory Formats

  • CF Mini hard drives

    • IBM microdrive

    • Up to 1 GB in storage

  • Digital camera off-load units




Before you start l.jpg
Before You Start

  • Practice with the camera

  • Double-check your camera settings

  • Carry extra batteries

  • Experiment with flash

    • How close to subject?

    • Test red-eye settings


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Hints On Taking Photos

  • Use a tripod or lean against stationery object

  • Conserve batteries

    • Limit use of screen viewer

    • Is camera turned off when not in use?


Automatic forced flash l.jpg
Automatic & Forced Flash

  • Automatic

    • Fires automatically as required

    • Useful for ordinary photography

  • Forced Flash

    • Photograph backlit scenes

    • Use outside in shade

    • Color correct fluorescent light


Suppressed red eye flash l.jpg
Suppressed & Red-Eye Flash

  • Suppressed Flash

    • Indoors where flash is ineffective

    • Photos taken through glass

  • Red-Eye Reduction

    • Pre-flashes so subject’s eyes appear more natural

    • Fires automatically as required


Slow synchro flash types l.jpg
Slow-Synchro Flash Types

  • Slow-Synchro

    • Slow shutter speed for taking pictures of people at night

    • Will show both subject and night time backdrop

    • Recommend tripod

  • Red-Eye Reduction plus Slow-Synchro


Example of flash icons l.jpg
Example of Flash Icons

Red eye

reduction

Red eye

reduction

plus slow

synchro

Forced

flash

Suppressed

flash

Slow

synchro


White balance control l.jpg
White Balance Control

  • Will attempt to correct the color for given light sources such as:

    • Daylight fluorescents

    • Warm white fluorescents

    • Cool white fluorescents

    • Incandescent lights

    • Outdoors

    • Shade


Delayed shutter response l.jpg
Delayed Shutter Response

  • Anticipate shutter lag

    • Shutter delay varies between cameras

  • Ask your subject to hold still!

  • Image-writing delay while the camera stores the photo

    • Some cameras are able to store images more quickly


Taking photos of people l.jpg
Taking Photos of People

  • Avoid red-eye

    • Use red-eye flash function

    • Ask subject to look away from flash

    • Use natural light

  • Don’t get too close

    • Distortion

    • You can crop image later


Flattery or kindness l.jpg
Flattery Or Kindness?

  • Avoid harsh shadows

  • Try different viewpoints

  • Use natural light instead of flash

  • Red clothing will overpowerskin tones


Hold still l.jpg
Hold Still!

  • Posing versus natural action

  • Take numerous photos of same pose

    • Subject may relax

    • Pose will look more natural

  • Shutter lag makes naturalaction shots difficult



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Connecting to a Computer

  • Install camera software

  • Check camera battery charge or plug in power adapter

  • Choice of connections

    • Camera to computer

    • Memory media to computer

  • Copy or move files from camera to computer


Problems l.jpg
Problems?

  • Where to go if you have problems with your camera

  • Camera batteries weak?

  • What if your computer won’t talk to the camera?

  • Software updates andother annoyances


Indoor lighting l.jpg
Indoor Lighting

  • Fluorescent light is green

  • Incandescent light is red

  • North light bulbs are blue

  • “Color-corrected” light bulbs are best

  • Use two light sourcesif possible


Photographing objects l.jpg
Photographing Objects

  • Avoid parallax effect if object has straight lines

    • Align camera to object

    • Align lines of object with frame of viewfinder or LCD monitor

  • Use a tripod or stand

  • Macro lenses


Lighting objects l.jpg
Lighting Objects

  • Lighting

    • Two lights are best

    • 45° angle to object

    • Measure distance of lights

  • Use a “color key” for fine reproductions



Before you choose l.jpg
Before You Choose

  • What is your budget?

  • Will it connect to your computer?

  • Evaluate your photographic needs

    • Pixel depth

    • Power supply requirements

    • Memory needs (16 MB to 1 GB+)

    • Do you have other portable devices?

    • Zoom capability needed?


How to choose a camera l.jpg
How To Choose A Camera

  • Try out cameras for a good fit

    • Does it fit your hands?

    • Controls easy to locate?

    • Display screen large enough?

    • Light enough to carry?

    • Zoom power?

  • Purchase at a store or buy online?

  • Keep an eye on sale prices


Bookmarks topics to visit l.jpg
Bookmarks Topics to Visit

  • Digital camera glossaries and dictionaries

  • Digital camera overview

  • Vendor web sites fordigital cameras andphotography



Outdoor lighting l.jpg
Outdoor Lighting

  • Sunlight causes shadows

  • North light is blue

  • Overcast days

  • Indirect lighting best for people

  • Use fill-in flash or reflector


Taking photos outdoors40 l.jpg
Taking Photos Outdoors

  • Sunrise, sunset

  • High noon

  • Overcast

  • Fill-in flash

  • Few filters availablefor digital cameras

    • Glare and reflections

    • Dust and smog



Do the right thing l.jpg
Do The Right Thing!

  • Get a signature release from your subjects

  • Copyright considerations

  • Infopeople course materialsavailable


Signature releases l.jpg
Signature Releases

  • Who owns that photograph?

  • If you put a photo of a person on the web, get a signature release

  • Legal issues

  • Sample signature releases


Copyright considerations l.jpg
Copyright Considerations

  • Again, who owns that photograph?

  • Legal issues

  • Get permission!

  • Protect your images


Bookmarks topics to visit45 l.jpg
Bookmarks Topics to Visit

  • Infopeople course

    • Library Laws For The Web Environment - 2002

  • Signature release samples

  • Copyright law



Photo design and repair l.jpg
Photo Design and Repair

  • Design and color hints

  • Cropping

  • Resizing

  • Color correction


Design hints l.jpg
Design Hints

  • View as abstract artwork (turn the photo upside down)

  • Save as black & white for a fresh view

  • Look at negative spaces

  • Avoid clutter


The rule of thirds in design l.jpg
The Rule of Thirds in Design

  • Hum Beethoven’s Fifth

  • Imagine a tic-tac-toe grid on your image

    • Line objects on the grid

    • Offset the focal point within the composition

  • Check for proportions of two-to-one


Value contrast luminance l.jpg
Value, Contrast & Luminance

  • Value

    • Relative lightness or darkness of a color

    • Black & white photography helps you see value

  • Contrast

    • Difference between highest and lowest luminance values

  • Luminance relates to light


Hue saturation brightness l.jpg
Hue, Saturation & Brightness

  • Hue

    • Intensity or gradation of color

  • Saturation

    • Chromatic purity - has color been diluted with white?

  • Brightness

    • Brilliance of a color relating to hue or saturation


Color impact l.jpg
Color Impact

  • Emotional impact of color

    • What kind of message do you wish to convey?

  • Reds “bleed”

    • May overpower other parts of the image


Color hints l.jpg
Color Hints

  • The rule of threes in color

  • Squint to see the values in the image

  • Check proportions of color of two-to-one


Cropping and resizing l.jpg
Cropping and Resizing

  • Focus on the subject

  • Get rid of clutter

  • The web can only show so much!

  • Reduce image file size

  • Improve your design


Software can correct color l.jpg
Software Can Correct Color

  • Balance your color

  • Correct bad lighting

  • Punch up the values

  • Increase the hue



Types of software l.jpg
Types of Software

  • Beginner

    • Apple iPhoto, Hypersnap, LviewPro

  • Intermediate

    • PaintShop Pro, Photoshop Elements

  • Advanced

    • Fireworks, Photoshop

  • Camera software



Exporting for the web l.jpg
Exporting For The Web

  • Use “save as” - keep original safe

  • PC vs Macintosh color differences

  • Reduce image and file size

    • Crop image

    • Resize image

    • Change file format to jpg or gif

    • Set resolution to 72 dpi


Exporting for print l.jpg
Exporting For Print

  • Use “save as” - keep original safe

  • Use largest pixel size setting available for camera

    • You won’t be able to take as many photos at a time, but the print quality will be greater

  • Save to highest quality TIFF format setting

  • Talk with your printer!

  • Color-correct your monitor


File extensions l.jpg
File Extensions

  • JPEG (*.jpg) web graphics

  • GIF (*.gif) flat color web graphics

  • TIFF (*.tif) print graphics

  • PSD (*.psd) Adobe Photoshop

  • PNG (*.png) Fireworks

  • PDF (*.pdf) Adobe Acrobat

  • Proprietary extensions


Digital photos can be huge l.jpg
Digital Photos Can Be Huge!

  • Managing disk space

  • Organizing your photos

  • Types of file management software

  • Infopeople course materials availableon digitization projects

  • Don’t forget metadata!


Bookmarks topics to visit63 l.jpg
Bookmarks Topics to Visit

  • Graphics software vendors

  • Digital collections projects

  • Infopeople course materials

    • Planning To Digitize Your Treasures, 2000

    • Planning Your Digitization Project, 2001

    • Creating Web Images With Fireworks, 2002



Back to reality l.jpg
Back To Reality…

  • What photos do you need (or want) to take for your library?

    • How / where will you use these photos?

    • What camera settings to use?

    • What is the subject matter?

    • Environment?

    • What kind of lighting?

    • Legal issues?


Summary and evaluation l.jpg
Summary and Evaluation

  • Overview of digital cameras

  • Hints on taking photos

  • Who owns that image?

  • Design and color hints

  • Managing your files and disk space


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