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DEMORACTIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

BY:

Eugene Herring

Shanelle Mohawk

Mariama Sidique

Deniece Yeboah


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THESIS:

  • Before NGOs can effectively work in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the international community must first recognize and address the insecurity and violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo.


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CONFLICT HISTORY:

  • “Africa’s first world war” Over 1,000 people continue to die each day from Diseases, Malnutrition and Ongoing Violence

  • Legacy of colonialism: 1885 Belgian imposition of colonial rule by King Leopold II

  • War broke out again in August 1998 -Rwandan troops backing Congolese Tutsi rebels invaded Congo


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HISTORY CONTINUED:

  • Between 1998 and 2004, an estimated 4 million people died in the ensuing conflict

  • In March 2005, the UN described Eastern Congo as “the world’s worst humanitarian crisis”.

  • Violence has been fuelled by Congo’s mineral wealth.

    WARNING:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwjt-mgM8E0


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Why Transnational?

  • Rwandan Refugees

  • Minerals exported

  • Northern NGOs seeking to address issues


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Great Lakes Refugee Crisis

  • Refugees continue to contribute to the humanitarian crisis

  • Displacement of thousands of Hutu and Tutsi refugees due to civil war/genocide

  • Refugees remain in hiding or are settled with the local population in that region, fearing reprisals if they return home

  • The refugees have credible fears of attacks by the Rwandan military once they return to their homes

  • DRC seeks repatriation


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Mineral reserves mean the DRC has the potential to become a prosperous state

Prominent potential industries: petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm, oil, soap, flour, cigarettes

Natural resources play a role in explaining the character of the colonial rule, but post colonial leaders have never sought to break the cycle

It is hoped elections will create an environment for greater foreign investment and a more organized exploitation of resources

Foreign businesses have curtailed current mineral operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict, lack of infrastructure, and difficult operating environment

Link between poverty and conflict

Natural Resources Exported


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Attention from NGOs prosperous state

The DRC is a transnational issue because NGOs like Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, WHO are raising awareness within public arena

The DRC has been considered a transnational issue since the Congo Crisis (1960-1965)

a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence from Belgium

UN military intervention

It is also debated that the Congo has been a site of a cold war Proxy battle between the United States and the Soviet Union


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ROLE OF NGOs and IGOs: prosperous state

1. International Rescue Committee (IRC)

  • Focus on reviving communities and strengthen local capacity for recovery.

  • The largest provider of humanitarian aid in DRC

  • Provide essential health care for 3.6 million people, constructing and repairing hospitals and clinics in DRC


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2.World Health Organization (WHO) prosperous state

  • Focus on health issues and the alleviation of treatable diseases such as malaria, meningitis, measles, AIDS and child malnutrition

3. MONUC

  • Established to facilitate the implementation of the Lusaka Accord signed in 1999

  • DRC government does not contribute to the finances


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Other Donors: prosperous state

Top Donors of gross ODA (2003/4) (US$ million)

www.monuc .com


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Why Give a Damn about Congo? prosperous state

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDOuk3g3ZmQ


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IR THEORIES: prosperous state

  • Realism – no intervention or intervention only based on national interests (power and notions of domination)

  • Liberal Institutionalism- UN-led intervention/peacekeeping should focus on establishing basic security and ability to trade

  • Constructivism- The atrocities require a humanitarian intervention and prosecution at the ICC

  • Feminism- Focus on gender, and how women/girls are affected by the violence


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From your knowledge of the matter in the Democratic Republic of Congo, what theory do you feel best explains the event in DRC?


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THEORY RELATED TO THE DRC CONFLICT: of Congo, what theory do you feel best explains the event in DRC?

  • Realist thought is the foundation of wars, especially those that tend to exploit resources, as well as people. Realist thought is based on strength, which comes from the military. This military power is used as a coercive tool in order to obtain the things that a state may want or need.


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WHAT ARE SOME SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS IN DRC? of Congo, what theory do you feel best explains the event in DRC?


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OUR SOLUTIONS: of Congo, what theory do you feel best explains the event in DRC?

  • Strengthen UN Mandates - Proceed, with MONUC, to establish a weapons-free zone, disarm new militias and have more peace keeping forces in the area

    -MONUC should establish joint monitoring teams with the national army to control troop movements

  • More Government NGO Cooperation

  • DRC Government rebuilding infrastructure

  • Renewed violence reduction program

  • Prosecutor of ICC should investigate atrocity crimes committed and prosecute those most responsible


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BIBLIOGRAPHY: of Congo, what theory do you feel best explains the event in DRC?

  • http://www.theirc.org/where/the_irc_in_democratic_republic_of_congo.html

  • http://www.monuc.org/News.aspx?newsID=11448&menuOpened=DRC%20profile

  • http://www.who.int/about/en/


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