CLASS AMPHIBIA Order Anura - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CLASS AMPHIBIA Order Anura. Ca. 4750 species worldwide (the most diverse group within Amphibia) Cosmopolitan distribution (except where limited by extremely cold or xeric climates) High reproductive diversity Mostly external fertilization Few internal fertilization (e.g., Ascaphus )

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CLASS AMPHIBIA Order Anura

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Class amphibia order anura l.jpg

CLASS AMPHIBIAOrder Anura

  • Ca. 4750 species worldwide (the most diverse group within Amphibia)

  • Cosmopolitan distribution (except where limited by extremely cold or xeric climates)

  • High reproductive diversity

    • Mostly external fertilization

    • Few internal fertilization (e.g., Ascaphus)

    • Direct development

    • Few viviparous species

Agalychnis callidryas


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Family Pelobatidae

  • 3 genera, 10 species (Holarctic distribution)

  • NA genera: Scaphiopus, Spea (1 genus in Europe: Pelobates)

  • Terrestrial, fossorial (sharp-edged spade on hind feet)

  • External fertilization

Scaphiopus couchii


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Scaphiopus vs. Spea

  • Scaphiopus: Spade on hindfoot elongated, sickle-shaped

  • Spea: Spade on hindfoot short, rounded, wedge-shaped


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Pelobatids of Nevada

  • Great Basin Spadefoot (Spea intermontana)


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Family Bufonidae

  • 33 genera, 376 species

  • Cosmopolitan distribution (except Greenland, Australia, Antarctica)

  • Mostly terrestrial

  • External fertilization (except few genera with internal fertilization, viviparity, or direct development)

Bufo boreas

Bufo alvarius


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Family Bufonidae

  • Most species with paratoid glands (producing toxins; Neotropical genus, Atelopus, produces Tetrodotoxin, just like the Salamandrid genus Taricha)

Bufo marinus

Bufo terrestris


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Bufo alvarius

  • Largest western toad

  • Enlarged warts on hindlegs

All maps found in this presentation are from ARMI Atlas for Amphibian distribution


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Bufo boreas

  • Usually rather indistinct white or cream-colored dorsal stripe

  • Lack of cranial crests


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Bufo cognatus

  • Large toad with well defined pale-bordered dark blotches, in symmetrical pairs on its back

  • Cranial crests diverge widely towards rear of head


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Bufo debilis

  • A small toad

  • Green or yellow green with small dark spots and bars on its back

  • Cranial crests weak or absent


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Bufo exsul

  • Small dark-colored toad

  • Extremely small distribution

  • White or cream below with dark blotches


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Bufo marinus

  • Introduced species from Central America

  • Large toad with deeply pitted paratoid glands extending far down sides of body


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Bufo punctatus

  • Small toads with flattened head and body

  • Paratoid glands are round


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Bufo speciosus

  • Medium-sized toad, uniformly warty, and with no dorsal stripe

  • Cranial crest weak or absent

  • Large inner metatarsal tubercle elongate and sharp-edged


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Bufo valliceps

  • Broad, dark lateral stripe bordered above by a light stripe

  • Cranial crests strongly developed

  • Deep “valley” down center of the head


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Bufo woodhousii

  • White dorsal stripe

  • Prominent cranial crest

  • Elongate paratoid glands


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Bufo microscaphus

  • Back usually without prominent dark spotting

  • Skin relatively smooth


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Bufonids of Nevada

Bufo nelsoni

Bufo boreas

Bufo microscaphus

Bufo cognatus

Bufo alvarius?

Bufo woodhousii

Bufo punctatus


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