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Biotechnology
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Biotechnology. What Is Biotechnology?. Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms

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Biotechnology

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Biotechnology


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What Is Biotechnology?

  • Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms

  • Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses


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BIO

  • Bio means life or living

  • Biotechnology is the application of living processes to technology


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What Is Biotechnology?

  • GMO- genetically modified organisms.

  • GEO- genetically enhanced organisms.

  • With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered.

  • Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding


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What Is Biotechnology?

  • Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology

  • Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either

    • Transferring them to another organism

    • Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations


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What is the career outlook in biotechnology?

  • Biotech in 1998

    • 1,300 companies in the US

    • 2/3 have less than 135 employees

    • 140,000 jobs

  • Jobs will continue to increase exponentially

  • Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhD’s


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What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?

  • Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome

  • Science

    • Life sciences

    • Physical sciences

    • Social sciences


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What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?

  • Mathematics

  • Applied sciences

    • Computer applications

    • Engineering

    • Agriculture


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What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development

  • Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication

  • Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine

  • Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering


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What Are the Areas of Biotechnology?

  • Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material

  • Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals

    • Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material


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What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology?

  • Medicine

    • Human

    • Veterinary

    • Biopharming

  • Environment

  • Agriculture

  • Food products

  • Industry and manufacturing


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Friedrich Meischer

  • Observed that the nuclei of all cells contain a slightly acidic substance. He named the substance NUCLEIC ACID.

  • This was later changed to DNA


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek

  • Discovered cells

    • Bacteria

    • Protists

    • Red blood


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Gregor Johan Mendel

  • Discovered genetics

  • Genetics is the biology of heredity


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Walter Sutton

  • Discovered Chromosomes


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Thomas Hunt Morgan

  • Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Ernst Ruska

  • Invented the electron microscope


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Sir Alexander Fleming

  • Discovered penicillin


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Rosalind Elsie Franklin

  • Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • James Watson and Francis Crick

  • Discovered DNA


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Mary-Claire King

  • Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments


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What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Ian Wilmut

  • Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly


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What Is Molecular Biology?

  • Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells

  • Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients

  • Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials

  • Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components


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What Is a Cell?

  • Cell- a discrete unit of life

  • Unicellular organism- organism of one cell

  • Multicellular organism- organism of many cells

  • Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus

  • Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus


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What Is a Cell?

  • Cells are building blocks:

    • Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions

    • Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions

    • Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions


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What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics?

  • Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed

  • Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis

  • Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome

  • DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information


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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)


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Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • DNA

  • Coded material in a cell is called DNA

  • It is the coded material in a cell that determines what the cell and its successive cells will become.


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DNA occurs in pairs of strands intertwined with each other and connected by chemicals called bases

The different bases in DNA are:

Adenine

Guanine

Cystosine

Thymine

The first letters of each word A, G, C, and T have become known as the genetic alphabet of the language of life.


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What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?

  • Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA

  • DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information


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What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?

  • Kinds of RNA:

    • mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation

    • rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins

    • tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA

    • snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA


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Improvement by Genetics

  • Genetics-The biology of heredity

  • Heredity-The transmission of characteristics from an organism to its offspring through genes in reproductive cells

  • Genes-Components of cells which determine the individual characteristics of living things.


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Improvement by Genetics

  • Generation-Refers to the offspring or PROGENY of common parents.


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What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms?

  • Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms

  • Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified

  • GMO- a genetically modified organism

  • GEO- a genetically enhanced organism


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How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used?

  • Agriculture

  • Horticulture

  • Forestry

  • Environment

  • Food Quality


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Transgenic

  • Animals or organisms etc. that have been modified using genetic engineering methods to contain genes that are not naturally found in the animal.

  • The new gene is inserted into the chromosomes of the transgenic organism, it may be transmitted to future offspring.

  • WHAT COULD SOME POSSIBLE REASONS BE????


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WHAT COULD SOME POSSIBLE REASONS BE????

  • Adding a clotting agent to the blood that would help dissolve clots.

  • What if:

    • Cancer free genetics?

    • Aids free genetics

      • Creating something that was resistant to these diseases???IS IT POSSIBLE?


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How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms?

  • Donor cell- cell that provides DNA

  • Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA

  • Protocol- procedure for a scientific process

  • Three methods used in gene transfer

    • Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid

    • Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun

    • Direct gene transfer- enzymes


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How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work?

  • Extract DNA from donor

  • Cut DNA into fragments

  • Sort DNA fragments

  • Recombine DNA fragments

  • Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA

  • Grow transformed (recipient) cells


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What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?

  • Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals

  • Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety


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What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?

  • Plant breeding methods;

    • Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves

    • Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species

    • Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties

  • Selection


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Improvement by Selection

  • Means picking the best plants or animals for producing the next generation.

  • Selective Breeding-selection of parents to get desirable characteristics in the offspring.


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Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered?

  • Resist pests

  • Resist herbicides

  • Improved product quality

  • Pharmaceuticals

  • Industrial products


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Ice-Minus

  • Bacteria that was genetically altered to retard frost formation on plant leaves.

  • Why would this be a good thing?Why would this be a bad thing?


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BST and PST

  • Bovine somatotropin-increase milk production in cattle

  • Porcine somatotropin-increases meat production in swine


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Insulin

  • One of the first commercial products made by genetic engineering.

  • Insulin is the chemical used by people with diabetes to control their blood sugar levels.


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What Is AI?

  • Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female

  • Semen is collected from males of desired quality

  • Semen is graded and stored


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What Is AI?

  • Female must be in estrus for conception

  • Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus

  • Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus


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What Is a Test Tube Baby?

  • In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube

    • Semen is collected from males of desired quality

    • Ova are removed from females

    • Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube


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What Is Gender Reversal?

  • Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal

    • Very young animals receive hormone treatments

    • Most common among selected fish species


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What Is Gender Preselection?

  • Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring

    • Sperm sorted before conception

    • Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences

    • X chromosomes produce female offspring

    • Y chromosomes produce male offspring


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What Is Embryo Transfer?

  • Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient

    • Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant

    • A quality donor female can produce more offspring


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What Is Multiple Ovulation?

  • Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus

    • Hormone injections administered prior to estrus

    • Used with embryo transfer

    • AI may be used to fertilize ova

    • After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients


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Clone

  • Exact duplicate of something.


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What Is Cloning?

  • Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent

  • Genotype is identical to parent

  • Cells or tissues are cultured


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How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production?

  • Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body

    • Released by endocrine glands into blood system

    • Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated

    • Used to increase growth and production rates

    • bST- promotes milk production in cows

    • pST- promotes lean meat production in swine


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Genetic Engineering

  • Refers to the movement of genetic information in the form of genes from one cell to another. Genes are comprised of DNA

  • The process of identifying the location of a specific gene on a chromosome is known as mapping.

  • Gene mapping is the process of finding and recording the location of genes.


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Genetic Engineering

  • The process of removing and inserting genes into DNA is called gene splicing or recombinant DNA.


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What Is Bioremediation?

  • Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems

  • Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials

  • Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes


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How Can Bioremediation Be Used?

  • Oil spills

  • Wastewater treatment

  • Heavy metal removal

  • Chemical degradation


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What Is Phytoremediation?

  • Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems

    • Plants absorb and break down pollutants

    • Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate


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What Is Composting?

  • Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter

  • Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting

  • In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting


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Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea


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What Are Bioethics?

  • Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea

  • Bio- living organisms

  • Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea

  • http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Home/biotechethics.htm


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Creating Bioethics Arguments

  • Read this article from the school website http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Home/dwnld/Ethics.in.Biotech.pdf

  • After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to support your Premise and Conclusion


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Ethical Arguments

  • Create an ethical argument for or against the following topics

    • Human Cloning

    • Gender Reversal on Livestock

    • Gender Reversal on Humans

    • Genetic Engineering of Plants

    • Genetic Engineering of Humans


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Creating a Premise

  • “Human cloning is immoral.”

  • Now you must find Scientific and Factual Claims to support your Premise

  • After you have at least 5 Claims, you may conclude, “Therefore, human cloning is immoral.”

  • You do not have to be for or against any of the topics, it’s your choice!


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