Biotechnology
Download
1 / 67

Biotechnology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 228 Views
  • Updated On :

Biotechnology. What Is Biotechnology?. Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Biotechnology' - Jeffrey


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

What is biotechnology l.jpg
What Is Biotechnology?

  • Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms

  • Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses


Slide3 l.jpg
BIO

  • Bio means life or living

  • Biotechnology is the application of living processes to technology


What is biotechnology4 l.jpg
What Is Biotechnology?

  • GMO- genetically modified organisms.

  • GEO- genetically enhanced organisms.

  • With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered.

  • Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding


What is biotechnology5 l.jpg
What Is Biotechnology?

  • Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology

  • Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either

    • Transferring them to another organism

    • Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations


What is the career outlook in biotechnology l.jpg
What is the career outlook in biotechnology?

  • Biotech in 1998

    • 1,300 companies in the US

    • 2/3 have less than 135 employees

    • 140,000 jobs

  • Jobs will continue to increase exponentially

  • Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhD’s


What subjects are involved with biotechnology l.jpg
What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?

  • Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome

  • Science

    • Life sciences

    • Physical sciences

    • Social sciences


What subjects are involved with biotechnology8 l.jpg
What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?

  • Mathematics

  • Applied sciences

    • Computer applications

    • Engineering

    • Agriculture


What are the stages of biotechnology development l.jpg
What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development

  • Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication

  • Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine

  • Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering


What are the areas of biotechnology l.jpg
What Are the Areas of Biotechnology?

  • Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material

  • Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals

    • Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material


What are the benefits of biotechnology l.jpg
What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology?

  • Medicine

    • Human

    • Veterinary

    • Biopharming

  • Environment

  • Agriculture

  • Food products

  • Industry and manufacturing


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Friedrich Meischer

  • Observed that the nuclei of all cells contain a slightly acidic substance. He named the substance NUCLEIC ACID.

  • This was later changed to DNA


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology13 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek

  • Discovered cells

    • Bacteria

    • Protists

    • Red blood


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology14 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Gregor Johan Mendel

  • Discovered genetics

  • Genetics is the biology of heredity


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology15 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Walter Sutton

  • Discovered Chromosomes


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology16 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Thomas Hunt Morgan

  • Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology17 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Ernst Ruska

  • Invented the electron microscope


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology18 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Sir Alexander Fleming

  • Discovered penicillin


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology19 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Rosalind Elsie Franklin

  • Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology20 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • James Watson and Francis Crick

  • Discovered DNA


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology21 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Mary-Claire King

  • Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments


What did these individuals contribute to biotechnology22 l.jpg
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?

  • Ian Wilmut

  • Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly


What is molecular biology l.jpg
What Is Molecular Biology?

  • Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells

  • Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients

  • Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials

  • Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components


What is a cell l.jpg
What Is a Cell?

  • Cell- a discrete unit of life

  • Unicellular organism- organism of one cell

  • Multicellular organism- organism of many cells

  • Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus

  • Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus


What is a cell25 l.jpg
What Is a Cell?

  • Cells are building blocks:

    • Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions

    • Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions

    • Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions


What are the structures in molecular genetics l.jpg
What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics?

  • Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed

  • Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis

  • Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome

  • DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information



Deoxyribonucleic acid l.jpg
Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • DNA

  • Coded material in a cell is called DNA

  • It is the coded material in a cell that determines what the cell and its successive cells will become.


Dna occurs in pairs of strands intertwined with each other and connected by chemicals called bases l.jpg
DNA occurs in pairs of strands intertwined with each other and connected by chemicals called bases

The different bases in DNA are:

Adenine

Guanine

Cystosine

Thymine

The first letters of each word A, G, C, and T have become known as the genetic alphabet of the language of life.


What is ribonucleic acid rna l.jpg
What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA

  • DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information


What is ribonucleic acid rna31 l.jpg
What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Kinds of RNA:

    • mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation

    • rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins

    • tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA

    • snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA


Improvement by genetics l.jpg
Improvement by Genetics and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Genetics-The biology of heredity

  • Heredity-The transmission of characteristics from an organism to its offspring through genes in reproductive cells

  • Genes-Components of cells which determine the individual characteristics of living things.


Improvement by genetics33 l.jpg
Improvement by Genetics and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Generation-Refers to the offspring or PROGENY of common parents.


What are genetic engineering organisms l.jpg
What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms

  • Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified

  • GMO- a genetically modified organism

  • GEO- a genetically enhanced organism


How can genetically engineered plants be used l.jpg
How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Agriculture

  • Horticulture

  • Forestry

  • Environment

  • Food Quality


Transgenic l.jpg
Transgenic and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Animals or organisms etc. that have been modified using genetic engineering methods to contain genes that are not naturally found in the animal.

  • The new gene is inserted into the chromosomes of the transgenic organism, it may be transmitted to future offspring.

  • WHAT COULD SOME POSSIBLE REASONS BE????


What could some possible reasons be l.jpg
WHAT COULD SOME POSSIBLE REASONS BE???? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Adding a clotting agent to the blood that would help dissolve clots.

  • What if:

    • Cancer free genetics?

    • Aids free genetics

      • Creating something that was resistant to these diseases???IS IT POSSIBLE?


How do we create transgenic organisms l.jpg
How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Donor cell- cell that provides DNA

  • Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA

  • Protocol- procedure for a scientific process

  • Three methods used in gene transfer

    • Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid

    • Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun

    • Direct gene transfer- enzymes


How does agrobacterium gene transfer work l.jpg
How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Extract DNA from donor

  • Cut DNA into fragments

  • Sort DNA fragments

  • Recombine DNA fragments

  • Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA

  • Grow transformed (recipient) cells


What are methods of classical biotechnology l.jpg
What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals

  • Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety


What are methods of classical biotechnology41 l.jpg
What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Plant breeding methods;

    • Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves

    • Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species

    • Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties

  • Selection


Improvement by selection l.jpg
Improvement by Selection and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Means picking the best plants or animals for producing the next generation.

  • Selective Breeding-selection of parents to get desirable characteristics in the offspring.


Why are plants genetically engineered l.jpg
Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Resist pests

  • Resist herbicides

  • Improved product quality

  • Pharmaceuticals

  • Industrial products


Ice minus l.jpg
Ice-Minus and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Bacteria that was genetically altered to retard frost formation on plant leaves.

  • Why would this be a good thing?Why would this be a bad thing?


Bst and pst l.jpg
BST and PST and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Bovine somatotropin-increase milk production in cattle

  • Porcine somatotropin-increases meat production in swine


Insulin l.jpg
Insulin and connected by chemicals called bases

  • One of the first commercial products made by genetic engineering.

  • Insulin is the chemical used by people with diabetes to control their blood sugar levels.


What is ai l.jpg
What Is AI? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female

  • Semen is collected from males of desired quality

  • Semen is graded and stored


What is ai48 l.jpg
What Is AI? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Female must be in estrus for conception

  • Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus

  • Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus


What is a test tube baby l.jpg
What Is a Test Tube Baby? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube

    • Semen is collected from males of desired quality

    • Ova are removed from females

    • Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube


What is gender reversal l.jpg
What Is Gender Reversal? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal

    • Very young animals receive hormone treatments

    • Most common among selected fish species


What is gender preselection l.jpg
What Is Gender Preselection? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring

    • Sperm sorted before conception

    • Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences

    • X chromosomes produce female offspring

    • Y chromosomes produce male offspring


What is embryo transfer l.jpg
What Is Embryo Transfer? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient

    • Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant

    • A quality donor female can produce more offspring


What is multiple ovulation l.jpg
What Is Multiple Ovulation? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus

    • Hormone injections administered prior to estrus

    • Used with embryo transfer

    • AI may be used to fertilize ova

    • After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients


Clone l.jpg
Clone and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Exact duplicate of something.


What is cloning l.jpg
What Is Cloning? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent

  • Genotype is identical to parent

  • Cells or tissues are cultured


How are hormones used in animal production l.jpg
How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body

    • Released by endocrine glands into blood system

    • Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated

    • Used to increase growth and production rates

    • bST- promotes milk production in cows

    • pST- promotes lean meat production in swine


Genetic engineering l.jpg
Genetic Engineering and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Refers to the movement of genetic information in the form of genes from one cell to another. Genes are comprised of DNA

  • The process of identifying the location of a specific gene on a chromosome is known as mapping.

  • Gene mapping is the process of finding and recording the location of genes.


Genetic engineering58 l.jpg
Genetic Engineering and connected by chemicals called bases

  • The process of removing and inserting genes into DNA is called gene splicing or recombinant DNA.


What is bioremediation l.jpg
What Is Bioremediation? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems

  • Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials

  • Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes


How can bioremediation be used l.jpg
How Can Bioremediation Be Used? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Oil spills

  • Wastewater treatment

  • Heavy metal removal

  • Chemical degradation


What is phytoremediation l.jpg
What Is Phytoremediation? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems

    • Plants absorb and break down pollutants

    • Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate


What is composting l.jpg
What Is Composting? and connected by chemicals called bases

  • Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter

  • Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting

  • In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting



What are bioethics l.jpg
What Are Bioethics? idea

  • Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea

  • Bio- living organisms

  • Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea

  • http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Home/biotechethics.htm


Creating bioethics arguments l.jpg
Creating Bioethics Arguments idea

  • Read this article from the school website http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Home/dwnld/Ethics.in.Biotech.pdf

  • After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to support your Premise and Conclusion


Ethical arguments l.jpg
Ethical Arguments idea

  • Create an ethical argument for or against the following topics

    • Human Cloning

    • Gender Reversal on Livestock

    • Gender Reversal on Humans

    • Genetic Engineering of Plants

    • Genetic Engineering of Humans


Creating a premise l.jpg
Creating a Premise idea

  • “Human cloning is immoral.”

  • Now you must find Scientific and Factual Claims to support your Premise

  • After you have at least 5 Claims, you may conclude, “Therefore, human cloning is immoral.”

  • You do not have to be for or against any of the topics, it’s your choice!


ad