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Freshwater Ponds & Lakes Streams & Rivers Wetlands. Marine Oceans Coral Reefs Estuaries. Aquatic Ecosystems. Ponds & Lakes Streams & Rivers Wetlands. Freshwater. Freshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration—usually less than 1%

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Aquatic ecosystems l.jpg

Freshwater

Ponds & Lakes

Streams & Rivers

Wetlands

Marine

Oceans

Coral Reefs

Estuaries

Aquatic Ecosystems


Freshwater l.jpg

Ponds & Lakes

Streams & Rivers

Wetlands

Freshwater


Freshwater3 l.jpg

Freshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration—usually less than 1%

Plants and animals in freshwater regions are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e, ocean)

Freshwater


Ponds and lakes l.jpg
Ponds and Lakes concentration—usually less than 1%

  • range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers

  • ponds may be seasonal, lasting just a couple of months (such as sessile pools)

  • lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more

  • may have limited species diversity since they are often isolated from one another and from other water sources like rivers and oceans


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Ponds and Lakes concentration—usually less than 1%

  • divided into three different “zones” determined by depth and distance from the shoreline

    • littoral zone

    • limnetic zone

    • profundal zone


Littoral zone l.jpg
Littoral Zone concentration—usually less than 1%

  • warmest since it is shallow and can absorb more of the Sun’s heat

  • sustains a fairly diverse community, which can include several species of algae (like diatoms), rooted and floating aquatic plants, grazing snails, clams, insects, crustaceans, fishes, and amphibians

  • the egg and larvae stages of some insects are found in this zone

  • vegetation and animals living in the littoral zone are food for other creatures such as turtles, snakes, and ducks


Limnetic zone l.jpg
Limnetic Zone concentration—usually less than 1%

  • near-surface open water surrounded by the littoral zone

  • well-lighted (like the littoral zone) and is dominated by plankton, both phytoplankton and zooplankton

  • plankton are small organisms that play a crucial role in the food chain – most life would not be possible without them

  • variety of freshwater fish also occupy this zone


Profundal zone l.jpg
Profundal Zone concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Plankton have short life spans—when they die, they fall into the deep-water part of the lake/pond

  • much colder and denser than the other two

  • little light penetrates all the way through the limnetic zone into the profundal zone

  • animals are decomposers


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Ponds and Lakes concentration—usually less than 1%

Temperature

  • varies seasonally.

  • Summer

    • from 4° C near the bottom to 22° C at the top

  • Winter

    • from 4° C while the top is 0° C (ice)

  • between the two layers is a narrow zone called the thermocline where the temperature of the water changes rapidly with depth


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Ponds and Lakes concentration—usually less than 1%

  • during the spring and fall seasons is a mixing of the top and bottom layers resulting in a uniform water temperature of around 4° C

  • mixing also circulates oxygen throughout the lake

  • many lakes and ponds do not freeze during the winter resulting in the top layer being a little warmer


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Ponds and Lakes concentration—usually less than 1%

  • ice can develop on the top of lakes during winter

    • blocks out sunlight and can prevent photosynthesis

    • oxygen levels drop and some plants and animals may die

    • called "winterkill."


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Ponds and Lakes concentration—usually less than 1%


Streams rivers l.jpg
Streams & Rivers concentration—usually less than 1%

  • bodies of flowing water moving in one direction

  • found everywhere—they get their start at headwaters, which may be springs, snowmelt or even lakes

  • travel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean


Watershed l.jpg
Watershed concentration—usually less than 1%

  • describes an area of land that contains a common set of streams and rivers

  • drains into a single larger body of water, such as a larger river, a lake or an ocean


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Streams & Rivers concentration—usually less than 1%

  • characteristics change during the journey from the source to the mouth

  • temperature is cooler at the source than it is at the mouth

  • water is also clearer, has higher oxygen levels, and freshwater fish such as trout and heterotrophs can be found there


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Streams & Rivers concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Towards the middle part of the stream/river, the width increases, as does species diversity—numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found


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Streams & Rivers concentration—usually less than 1%

  • toward the mouth the water becomes murky from all the sediments that it has picked up upstream

  • decreasing the amount of light that can penetrate through the water

  • less light

    • less diversity of flora

    • lower oxygen levels

    • fish that require less oxygen, such as catfish and carp, can be found


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Streams & Rivers concentration—usually less than 1%


Wetlands l.jpg
Wetlands concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Wetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plants

    • Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands


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Wetlands concentration—usually less than 1%

Plants

  • adapted to the very moist and humid conditions are called hydrophytes

    Pond lilies Cattails Sedges

    Tamarack Black Spruce

    Gum Cypress


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Wetlands concentration—usually less than 1%

  • highest species diversity of all ecosystems

  • many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds (such as ducks and waders), and furbearers can be found in the wetlands

  • not considered freshwater ecosystems as there are some, such as salt marshes, that have high salt concentrations—these support different species of animals, such as shrimp, shellfish, and various grasses


Wetlands23 l.jpg
Wetlands concentration—usually less than 1%

River Otter

Damselfly Dragonfly Mayfly

Crayfish Snails Leech Bluegill Bass

Catfish Sculpin Minnow Snakes

Frog Turtle

Great Blue Heron Canadian Goose


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Marine concentration—usually less than 1%

Oceans

Coral Reefs

Estuaries

Aquatic Ecosystems


Marine l.jpg
Marine concentration—usually less than 1%

  • cover about three-fourths of the Earth’s surface and include oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries

  • algae supply much of the world’s oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide

  • evaporation of the seawater provides rainwater for the land


Oceans l.jpg
Oceans concentration—usually less than 1%

  • largest of all the ecosystems

  • dominate the Earth’s surface

  • separate zones

    • Intertidal

    • Pelagic

    • Abyssal

    • Benthic

  • great diversity of species

  • richest diversity of species even though it contains fewer species than there are on land


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Oceans concentration—usually less than 1%


Intertidal zone l.jpg
Intertidal Zone concentration—usually less than 1%

  • where the ocean meets the land

    • sometimes submerged and at other times exposed

    • waves and tides come in and out

  • communities are constantly changing


Intertidal zone29 l.jpg
Intertidal Zone concentration—usually less than 1%

  • rocky coasts

    • stratified vertically

      • Where only highest tides reach

      • a few species of algae and mollusks

    • submerged during high tide

      • more diverse array of algae and small animals, such as herbivorous snails, crabs, sea stars, and small fishes

    • bottom of the intertidal zone

      • only exposed during the lowest tides, many invertebrates, fishes, and seaweed can be found


Intertidal zone30 l.jpg
Intertidal Zone concentration—usually less than 1%

  • sandier shores

    • not as stratified

    • waves keep mud and sand constantly moving

      • very few algae and plants can establish themselves—the fauna include worms, clams, predatory crustaceans, crabs, and shorebirds.


Wave regions l.jpg
Wave Regions concentration—usually less than 1%

  • much stronger than wind

  • decide what grows where

  • shores classified by amount of wave action

    • Exposed shores – receive full brunt of the ocean for most or at least some of the time

    • Semi-exposed shores – sheltered by barrier islands but still have to cope with waves

    • Sheltered shores – shelter of peninsulas and inshore islands

    • Enclosed shores

      • river mouths and estuaries

      • completely sheltered by either a protective rocks or a sand bar


Pelagic open ocean l.jpg
Pelagic concentration—usually less than 1% – Open Ocean

  • waters further from the land, basically the open ocean

  • generally cold though it is hard to give a general temperature range since, just like ponds and lakes, there is thermal stratification with a constant mixing of warm and cold ocean currents


Epipelagic open ocean l.jpg
Epipelagic – Open Ocean concentration—usually less than 1%

  • extends down to around 200m

    • lowest depth that light can penetrate

  • flora in the epipelagic zone include surface seaweeds

  • fauna include many species of fish and some mammals, such as whales and dolphins

  • many feed on the abundant plankton


Mesopelagic zone l.jpg
Mesopelagic Zone concentration—usually less than 1%

http://oceanlink.island.net/oinfo/deepsea/meso.html

  • "twilight zone" of the ocean

    • photic zone above

    • darkness below

  • food becomes scarce – some animals

    • migrate up to the surface at night to feed

    • rely on food that falls down from above

    • eat each other

      • sometimes the only things to eat may be bigger than the hunter

        • developed long sharp teeth,

        • expandable jaws and stomachs


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ctenophore – related to jellyfish concentration—usually less than 1%

Big Scale - ambush predator cilia can be illuminated

Firefly squid

three kinds of photophores

Hatchet Fish

only a few inches long

Viperfish

specially adapted hinged skull

Dragonfish - stomachs hold big meals

Snipeel

up to 1.2m Siphonophores are colonies of animals

related to jellyfish

best known is Portugese Man of War

http://oceanlink.island.net/oinfo/deepsea/meso.html


Bathypelagic zone l.jpg
Bathypelagic Zone concentration—usually less than 1%

  • extends down from 1000 to 4000m

  • only light is from bioluminescent organisms

  • only food is what trickles down from above, or from eating other animals

  • water pressure at this depth is considerable (~100 – 400 atmospheres)

  • most animals are either black or red in color

  • very little blue/green light penetrates this deep – red is not reflected and looks black


Slide41 l.jpg

Narcomedusa concentration—usually less than 1%

Vampire Squid

Snake Dragon

Angler Fish

Amphi - crustacean

Ctenophore – voracious predator

Deepstaria very slow swimmers, no tentacles, close flexible bells (up to a meter across) around their prey

Big Red

grows to over

a meter across


Abyssopelagic zone the abyss l.jpg
Abyssopelagic Zone - the Abyss concentration—usually less than 1%

  • 4000m to the sea floor

  • only zone deeper than this is the hadal zone

    • areas found in deep sea trenches and canyons

  • home to pretty inhospitable living conditions

    • near- freezing temperatures

    • crushing pressures


Slide43 l.jpg

Deep Water Squid concentration—usually less than 1%

Basketstar

Sea Pig Sea Spider

Shrimp

Winged Sea Cucumber

Medussa

Deep Sea Smoker - 648°F

Deep-sea AnemoneHydrothermal Vent


Slide45 l.jpg

  • Ballina Angelfish concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Beaked Salmon

  • A deepsea anglerfish (no common name)

  • Duckbilled Eel

  • A fanfin anglerfish

  • Fangtooth

  • Gilbert's Halosaur

  • Gulper Eel

  • Hammerjaw

  • Largescale New Laternfish

  • Longray Spiderfish

  • Portuguese Dogfish

  • Sharpnose Sevengill Shark

  • Short-tail Torpedo Ray

  • Silver Lighthouse Fish

  • A snaggletooth (no common name)

  • Snubnosed Eel

  • Southern Spineback

  • Sparkling Slickhead

  • Spiky Oreo

  • Stoplight Loosejaw

  • Triplewart Seadevil

  • Viperfish

  • http://www.amonline.net.au/fishes/about/fieldwork/norfanz/


The coral reef biome l.jpg

The Coral Reef Biome concentration—usually less than 1%

A Look at a Marine Biome

Created by

Terri Street


What is a coral reef l.jpg
What Is a Coral Reef? concentration—usually less than 1%

  • A structure formed by coral polyps, tiny animals that live in colonies.

  • Coral polyps form a hard, stony, branching structure made of limestone.

  • New polyps attach to old coral and gradually build the reef.


Types of coral reefs l.jpg
Types of Coral Reefs concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Fringing reefs

    • Submerged platforms of living coral extending from the shore into the sea

  • Barrier reefs

    • Follow the shore but are separated from it by water

    • Great Barrier Reef is world’s largest


Types of coral reefs49 l.jpg
Types of Coral Reefs concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Atolls

    • Ring-shaped islands of coral in open sea

    • Form on submerged mud banks or volcano craters

    • Surround a seawater lagoon

    • Channels connect lagoon to the sea


A world of coral reefs l.jpg

= Coral Reef concentration—usually less than 1%

A World of Coral Reefs


Coral reef climate l.jpg
Coral Reef Climate concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Usually found near land in shallow, warm salt water

  • Lots of light

  • Tropical temperatures, averaging 70°-85° F

  • Most coral cannot survive below 65° F


Coral reef plants l.jpg
Coral Reef Plants concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Phytoplankton

    • Microscopic

    • Basis for all ocean food chains


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Coral Reef Plants concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Algae

    • Green

    • Red

    • Brown algaetakes many forms


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Coral Reef Plants concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Seaweed and Sea grasses

    • Brown seaweed

    • Sea grass

    • Shoal grass

    • Turtle grass


Fascinating fact the great barrier reef l.jpg
Fascinating Fact: The Great Barrier Reef concentration—usually less than 1%

  • World’s largest coral reef

  • Over 1257 mileslong

  • Off the northeast coast of Australia

  • Only grows about one inch per year


The great barrier reef home to l.jpg
The Great Barrier Reef: Home to… concentration—usually less than 1%

  • 1500 species of fish

  • 400 different types of coral

  • 4,000 mollusks

  • 500 species of seaweed

  • 215 species of birds

  • 16 species of sea snake

  • 6 species of sea turtle

  • Whales visit during winter


Coral reef creatures l.jpg
Coral Reef Creatures concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Coral polyps

    • Tentacles

    • Digestivesac

    • Connectingfilaments

    • Skeletal body


Coral reef creatures59 l.jpg
Coral Reef Creatures concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Symbioticrelationships

    • Coral with algae

    • Clown fish with sea anemones


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Coral Reef Creatures concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Tropical fish

    • Angel fish

    • John Dory

    • Butterfly fish

Sea horse

Octopus

Reef shark


Fascinating fact the sea horse l.jpg
Fascinating Fact: concentration—usually less than 1%The Sea Horse

  • Very weak swimmers

  • Female lays eggs, male carries them in pouch till birth

  • Only animal in which the father gives birth

  • Body covered with armored plates


Sample food chain l.jpg

Starfish concentration—usually less than 1%

Octopus

Zooplankton

Coral

Moray Eel

Phytoplankton

Sample Food Chain


Endangered coral reefs l.jpg
Endangered Coral Reefs concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Major threats to coral reefs include:

    • Ocean pollution

    • Dredging off the coast


Endangered coral reefs64 l.jpg
Endangered Coral Reefs concentration—usually less than 1%

  • Other dangers:

    • Careless collection of coral specimens

    • Sedimentation

      • Inhibits growth of coral polyps

      • Inhibits algae growth

      • Upsets balance of the biome


Estuaries l.jpg
Estuaries concentration—usually less than 1%

http://www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/about1.htm

  • enclosed body of water formed where freshwater from rivers and streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the salty sea water

  • estuaries and the lands surrounding them are places of transition from land to sea, and from fresh to salt water

  • although influenced by the tides, estuaries are protected from the full force of ocean waves, winds, and storms by the reefs, barrier islands, or fingers of land, mud, or sand that define an estuary's seaward boundary


Estuaries are semi enclosed bodies of water where fresh water from the land mixes with sea water l.jpg
Estuaries are semi-enclosed bodies of water where fresh water from the land mixes with sea water.

  • Estuaries originate as: drowned river valleys, fjords, bar-built estuaries, and tectonic estuaries.

  • Salinity typically grades from normal marine salinity at the tidal inlet to fresh water at the mouth of the river.


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Estuaries can be subdivided into three types based upon the relative importance of river inflow and tidal mixing.

  • Salt-wedge estuaries are dominated by the outflow from rivers.

  • Partially-mixed estuaries are dominated by neither river inflow nor tidal mixing.

  • In well-mixed estuaries tidal turbulence destroys the halocline and water stratification.

  • Because river discharge and tidal flow vary, conditions within an estuary can also change, being well-mixed when river flow decreases relative to tidal mixing, to becoming a salt-wedge estuary at times of maximum river discharge.


The widely fluctuating environmental conditions in estuaries make life stressful for organisms l.jpg
The widely fluctuating environmental conditions in estuaries make life stressful for organisms.

  • Estuaries are extremely fertile because nutrients are brought in by rivers and recycled from the bottom because of the turbulence.

  • Stressful conditions and abundant nutrients result in low species diversity, but great abundance of the species present.

  • Despite abundance of nutrients, phytoplankton blooms are irregular and the base of the food chain is detritus washed in from adjacent salt marshes.

  • The benthonic fauna strongly reflects the nature of the substrate and most fishes are juvenile forms living within the estuary until they mature and migrate to the ocean.


Estuaries69 l.jpg
Estuaries make life stressful for organisms.

http://www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/about1.htm

  • Estuaries are sometimes called “marine nurseries”

    • habitats for many juvenile organisms, especially for fishes

    • many fish are born and grow up in estuaries

    • migrate to the open ocean


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Lagoons are isolated to semi-enclosed, shallow, coastal bodies of water that receive little if any fresh water inflow.

  • Lagoons can occur at any latitude and their salinities vary from brackish to hypersaline depending upon climate and local hydrology.

  • Bottom sediments are usually sand or mud eroded which was from the shoreline or swept in through the tidal inlet.

  • In the tropics, the water column is typically isothermal.

  • In the subtropics, salinity generally increases away from the inlet and the lagoon may display inverse flow.


Salt marshes are intertidal flats covered by grassy vegetation l.jpg
Salt marshes are intertidal flats covered by grassy vegetation.

  • Marshes are most commonly found in protected areas with a moderate tidal range, such as the landward side of barrier islands.

  • Marshes flood daily at high tide and then drain through a series of channels with the ebb tide.

  • They are one of the most productive environments.

  • Marshes can be divided into two parts: Low salt marshes and High salt marshes.

  • Distribution and density of organisms in salt marshes strongly reflects availability of food, need for protection, and frequency of flooding.


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Mangroves are large woody trees with a dense, complex root system that grows downward from the branches

  • Mangroves are the dominant plant of the tropical and subtropical intertidal area

  • Distribution of the trees is largely controlled by air temperature, exposure to wave and current attack, tidal range, substrate and sea water chemistry

  • Detritus from the mangrove forms the base of the food chain


Bibliography l.jpg
Bibliography system that grows downward from the branches

  • http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/index.html

  • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/biomes/marsh/freshwater.shtml

  • http://mbgnet.mobot.org/

  • http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/intro.html

  • http://archive.globe.gov/sda-bin/wt/ghp/tg+L(en)+P(seasons/Miniinvestigation)

  • http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/global200/pages/home.htm

  • “Coral Reefs.” World Book. Chicago: World Book, 1998. Vol. 4, p. 257.

  • “Coral Reefs.” http://kidscience.about.com/kids/kidscience/cs/coralreefs/


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