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Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data. Lecture 6 Measurement of Living Standards. Living standards and socioeconomic status. Our concern: socioeconomic disparities in health Could examine health in relation to:

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analyzing health equity using household survey data

Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data

Lecture 6

Measurement of Living Standards

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

living standards and socioeconomic status
Living standards and socioeconomic status
  • Our concern: socioeconomic disparities in health
  • Could examine health in relation to:
    • Categorical indicator of socioeconomic status (SES): education, occupation,
    • Continuous measure of living standards: income, consumption, wealth
  • Each may be of intrinsic interest, but here concentrate on latter because:
    • Measures of inequality employed require ranking, preferably uniquely 1,….n
    • We are economists!
  • Which measure of living standards and does it matter for estimation of economic-related health inequality?

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

flow and stock concepts
Flow variables

Income

The amount that can be consumed in a given period without reducing the stock of wealth

Expenditure

The amount paid by household for food, clothing, household durables, loan repayments

Consumption

The amount of resources actually used (consumed) during a given period

Stock variable

Wealth

Total value of assets and liabilities at any point in time

Flow and stock concepts

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

the relationship between measures of living standards
The relationship between measures of living standards
  • Income  Consumption
    • Saving and borrowing drives wedge between concepts
    • Tendency to smooth consumption over time
  • Consumption  Expenditure
    • Expenditure excludes non-market transactions
    • Durables: use value may be different from expenditure
  • Wealth  Income  Consumption
    • Motives for wealth accumulation: life-cycle considerations and precautionary

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

slide5

SAVING

BORROWING

INCOME

TAXES & TRANSFERS

USE VALUE OF DURABLES

CONSUMPTION

EXPENDITURE

IN-KIND RESOURCES

“IMMEDIATE” CONSUMPTION

IMPERFECT MEASUREMENT

IMPERFECT MEASUREMENT

Relationship between income and consumption

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

approaches to measurement
Approaches to measurement

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

measuring income and wealth
Measuring income and wealth
  • Income
    • Many components: cash earnings, other cash market income (interest, dividends, etc.), cash transfers, other money income, realized capital gains and intermittent income, in-kind earnings and home production, imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings,…
  • Wealth
    • Financial and non-financial assets and liabilities
  • Data collection is tricky…
    • Non-response and reporting bias
    • Respondents may not know value of assets
    • Comprehensiveness of measure
  • Income and wealth data rarely collected directly in HH surveys in developing countries

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

measuring consumption
Measuring consumption
  • Two approaches to measuring consumption
    • Retrospective recall questions about consumption
    • Diary recording of consumption and expenditure on daily basis (literacy issue)
    • Either approach normally requires multiple visits to households
  • Data collected on
    • Food and non-food items, durables, and housing
    • Purchased and home-produced items
    • Considerable variation across surveys in number of items covered
  • Consumption is measured with respect to a reference period e.g, one year
  • Recall periods (time interval for which consumption reported) varies across goods and services depending on frequency of purchase

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

constructing consumption aggregates
Constructing consumption aggregates
  • Food consumption
    • Purchased food: amount spent in typical month x 12
    • Home-produced: qty in typical month x farmgate price x 12
    • Received as gift or in-kind payment: total value p.a.
    • Consumed outside home: restaurant, at work, at school, etc.
  • Non-food consumption
    • Daily use items, clothing, house-ware (annualized)
    • Health spending
  • Durables & housing
    • Durables: rental equivalent value
    • Housing: actual or imputed rent (annualized)
  • Exclude
    • work-related expenses; purchases of assets; spending on durables & housing; other lumpy spending; most taxes

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

adjusting aggregates
Adjusting aggregates…
  • for cost of living differences
    • Spatial and sometimes temporal
  • for household size and composition –
    • In simplest case, per capita consumption
      • But does not allow for economies of scale (two can live (nearly) as cheaply as one) and differences in needs
    • Construct equivalence scale, E; divide HH consumption by E
    • Simple scale: E = (A+aK)b, where A=# adults, K=# kids, and a is child adjustment and b is elasticity capturing economies of scale
    • Special cases:
      • a=b=1 gives #HH members and is per capita adjustment (no economies of scale)
      • a=1; b=0 gives E=1, so equivalent consumption= HH consumption (maximal economies of scale)
      • a=1; b=0.75 gives E=(A+K)0.75, this is common—allows limited economies of scale
      • a=0.5; b=0.75 gives E=(A+0.5K)0.75, allows for lower consumption needs of kids

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

proxy measures of living standards
Proxy measures of living standards
  • Collecting and analyzing income, consumption, and wealth data is difficult and expensive
  • Alternative: construct proxy for living standards using variables that are easier to collect
    • E.g. assets, housing characteristics, other individual or HH characteristics
  • Three approaches to constructing proxy variable
    • Predicting consumption (requires both consumption and asset data for at least one survey round)
    • Ad hoc (“naïve”) approach - e.g. sum of assets
    • Principal component or factor analysis

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

constructing an asset index
Constructing an asset index
  • Common variables in asset index
    • Durables: bicycle, motorcycle, care, sewing machine, refrigerator, TV, tractor, thrasher, clock, fan, animals, etc.
    • Housing: type of floor & roof, type of drinking water and sanitation, type of cooking & lighting fuel, etc.
  • Construction of index
    • Run PCA on index variables
    • Retain 1st principal component
    • Alternative: factor analysis
  • What does it mean?
    • Statistical methods for combining many variables into a single factor
    • New factor is a linear combination of original variables
    • Weights assigned to each variable (asset) so as to maximize variation of new variable, subject to number of constraints

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

the asset index in mozambique
The asset index in Mozambique

Asset index = 0.21 * cement floor + 0.20 * piped drinking water

+ 0.19 * electricity + 0.19 * refrigerator + ... and so on…

Where

factor loadings india 1992 93
Factor loadings, India 1992-93

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

does it matter which measure we use
Does it matter which measure we use?
  • Correlation between income and asset index often low
    • Ranking of individuals changes depending on choice of living standards measure
  • If re-ranking is correlated with health variable of interest, this will lead to different estimates of inequality
  • Some evidence that asset index is a good proxy for consumption and estimates of inequality in child anthropometrics are robust choice b/w them
  • But not true for all health variables of interest

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

socioeconomic inequality in immunization in mozambique
Socioeconomic inequality in immunization in Mozambique

Ranked by asset index

Ranked by consumption

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

some conclusions
Some conclusions
  • Be aware of data limitations
  • Make limitations explicit in analysis
  • Check sensitivity of analysis if possible
    • Choice of living standards measure
    • Choice of assets in index
  • Work towards better data
    • Improve measurement of living standards in health surveys (e.g. DHS)
    • Improve health data in living standards and household budget surveys

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

useful resources
Useful resources

Guide to HH survey methodology

http://unstats.un.org/unsd/HHsurveys/

  • World Bank LSMS website

http://www.worldbank.org/lsms

  • Deaton and Zaidi paper on consumption aggregation

http://www.wws.princeton.edu/~rpds/

“Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data” Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer, Adam Wagstaff and Magnus Lindelow, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2008, www.worldbank.org/analyzinghealthequity

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