Circulatory System
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Circulatory System in Animals. Feeding the Need for Energy. Supplies in fuel (sugars) digestive system oxygen respiratory system Waste out CO 2 respiratory system Need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body circulatory system. Circulatory system.

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Feeding the need for energy l.jpg
Feeding the Need for Energy

  • Supplies in

    • fuel (sugars)

      • digestive system

    • oxygen

      • respiratory system

  • Waste out

    • CO2

      • respiratory system

  • Need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body

    • circulatory system


Circulatory system l.jpg
Circulatory system

  • Made up of 3 parts

    • organ

      • heart

    • tissues & cells

      • blood

        • red blood cells

      • blood vessels(vascular system)

        • arteries

        • veins

        • capillaries


Circulatory systems l.jpg
Circulatory systems

  • All animals have:

    • muscular pump = heart

    • tubes = blood vessels

    • circulatory fluid = “blood”

open

closed

hemolymph

blood


Vertebrate circulatory system l.jpg

SL

AV

AV

Vertebrate circulatory system

  • 2 part system

lungs

arteryto lungs

vein from lungsto heart

heart

vein from bodyto heart

artery

to body

body


Circulation of blood in mammals l.jpg
Circulation of Blood in Mammals

Circulationto lungs

  • 2 part system

    • Circulation to lungs

      • blood gets O2 from lungs

      • brings O2-rich blood back to heart

    • Circulation to body

      • pumps O2-rich blood to body

      • picks up nutrients from digestive system

      • brings CO2& cell wastes from body to heart

lungs

heart

body

Circulationto body


Stops along the way l.jpg
Stops along the way…

  • Lungs

    • pick up O2 / clean out CO2

  • Small Intestines

    • pick up nutrients from digested food

  • Large Intestines

    • pick up water from digested food

  • Liver

    • clean out worn out blood cells


More stops along the way l.jpg
More stops along the way…

  • Kidneys

    • filters out wastes (urea)

    • excess salts, sugars & water

  • Bone

    • picks up new red blood cells

  • Spleen

    • picks up new white blood cells


Mammalian heart l.jpg
Mammalian Heart

  • 4-Chambered heart

    • atria (atrium)

      • thin wall

      • collection chamber

      • receive blood

    • ventricles

      • thick wall pump

      • pump blood out

leftatrium

rightatrium

rightventricle

leftventricle


Heart valves l.jpg

SL

AV

AV

Heart valves

  • 4 valves in the heart

    • flaps of connective tissue

    • prevent backflow

  • AV valve

    • between atrium & ventricle

    • keeps blood from flowing back into atrium when ventricle pumps

    • “lub”

  • Semilunar valves

    • between ventricle & arteries

    • prevent backflow from arteries into ventricles

    • “dub”

Heart murmur

  • leaking valve causes hissing sound

  • blood squirts backward through valve


Electrical signals l.jpg
Electrical signals

  • heart pumping controlled by electrical impulses

  • signal also transmitted to skin = EKG

stimulates ventricles to contract from bottom to top, driving blood into arteries

allows atria to empty completely before ventricles contract


Measurement of blood pressure l.jpg
Measurement of blood pressure

  • High Blood Pressure (hypertension)

    • if top number (pumping) > 150

    • if bottom number (filling) > 90


Blood vessels l.jpg
Blood vessels

arteries

veins

artery

arterioles

venules

arterioles

capillaries

venules

veins


Arteries built for their job l.jpg
Arteries: Built for their job

  • Arteries

    • blood flows away from heart

    • thicker walls

      • provide strength for high pressure pumping of blood

    • elastic & stretchable

      • maintains blood pressure even when heart relaxes


Major arteries l.jpg
Major arteries

aorta

carotid= to head

to brain & left arm

to right arm

to body

pulmonaryartery

pulmonaryartery=to lungs

coronary arteries


Coronary arteries l.jpg
Coronary arteries

bypass surgery


Veins built for their job l.jpg
Veins: Built for their job

Blood flows

toward heart

  • Veins

    • blood returns back to heart

    • thinner-walled

      • blood travels back to heart at low speed & pressure

      • blood flows because muscles contract when we move

        • squeeze blood through veins

    • valves in large veins

      • in larger veins one-way valves allow blood to flow only toward heart

Openvalve

Closed valve


Major veins l.jpg
Major Veins

superiorvena cava= from upper body

pulmonaryvein= from lung

pulmonaryvein = from lung

inferiorvena cava= from lower body


Capillary where all the action is l.jpg
Capillary: Where all the action is

  • Capillaries

    • very thin walls

    • allows exchange of materials across capillary

      • O2, CO2, H2O, food, waste

      • diffusion


Blood blood cells l.jpg
Blood & blood cells

  • Blood is a tissue of fluid & cells

    • plasma

      • fluid

      • dissolved salts, sugars, proteins, and more

    • cells

      • red blood cells (RBC)

        • transport O2 in hemoglobin

      • white blood cells (WBC)

        • defense & immunity

      • platelets

        • blood clotting


Blood cell production l.jpg
Blood Cell production

ribs, vertebrae, breastbone & pelvis

  • Stem cells

    • “parent” cells in bone marrow

    • mature into many different types of cells

white blood cells

white bloodcells

red bloodcells


Red blood cells l.jpg
Red blood cells

  • Small round cells

    • produced in bone marrow

    • lose nucleus & mitochondria

      • more space for hemoglobin

        • iron-containing protein that transports O2

    • last 3-4 months (120 days)

      • filtered out by liver

      • ~3 million RBC destroyed each second

      • replaced by 3 million more produced each second

  • 5-6 million RBC in tiny drop of human blood

  • 5 liters of blood in body


Hemoglobin l.jpg
Hemoglobin

  • Protein which carries O2

O2

O2

O2


Blood clotting l.jpg

emergency repair of circulatory system

Blood clotting

chemicalemergencysignals

plateletsseal the hole

fibrin protein fibersbuild clot


Cardiovascular disease l.jpg
Cardiovascular disease

  • Atherosclerosis & Arteriosclerosis

    • deposits inside arteries (plaques)

      • develop in inner wall of the arteries, narrowing their channel

    • increase blood pressure

    • increase risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney damage

normal artery

hardening of arteries


Cardiovascular health l.jpg
Cardiovascular health

bypass surgery

  • Genetic effects

  • Diet

    • diet rich in animal fat increases risk of CV disease

  • Exercise & lifestyle

    • smoking & lack of exercise increases risk of CV disease



Heart disease l.jpg
Heart Disease

Heart disease death rates 1996-2002Adults ages 35 and older


Women heart disease l.jpg
Women & Heart Disease

Death rates for heart disease per 100,000 women, 2002

  • Heart disease is 3rd leading cause of death among women aged 25–44 years & 2nd leading cause of death among women aged 45–64 years.

Risk factors

  • Smoking

  • Lack of exercise

  • High fat diet

  • Overweight



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