Why Study Nature? Power (Control over it) “When will the Nile flood?” (time/astronomy) “What will make my sick baby better?” (medicine) “How can I make my spear fly faster and farther?” (physics) Celebrity Status A-List parties Red carpet treatment
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Red carpet treatment
Because we must.
Mankind has always been driven to understand the world.
The world is inherently simple and beautiful. It can be understood.
And always: Babes…never forget the babes…
As a single, unified thing there
exists in us both life and death,
waking and sleeping, youth and
old age, because the former
things having changed are now
the latter, and when those latter things change, they become the former.
Being is ungenerated and indestructible, whole, of
one kind and unwavering, and complete. Nor was
it, nor will it be, since now it is, all together, one,
continuous...That it came from what is not I shall
not allow you to say or think — for it is not
sayable or thinkable that it is not...How might what is then perish? How might it come into being? For if it came into being it is not, nor is it if it is ever going to be. Thus generation is
quenched and perishing unheard of.
circa 480 BC
PHILOSOPHIÆ NATURALIS PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA AUCTORE ISAACO NEWTONO Editio tertia MDCCXXVI
Axiomata sive Leges Motus
Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiscendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum,
nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare.
Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impress", et fieri secundum lineam
rectam qua vis illa imprimitur.
Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones
in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi.
PHILOSOPHIÆ NATURALIS PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA Author Isaac Newton Third edition (1726)
Three Laws of Motion
Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is
F = ma.
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Everything pertaining from
astronomical motion to
falling here on Earth can be
fully described by Newton’s
Law of Gravity plus his
laws of motion.
James Clerk Maxwell (~1864)
Then may we not fairly plead in reply that our true lover of knowledge naturally strives for truth, and is not content with common opinion, but soars with undimmed and unwearied passion till he grasps the essential nature of things ?
What is the root of it all?
From where comes meaning?
High Energy Particle Physics is a study of the smallest pieces of matter.
It investigates the deepest and most fundamental aspects of nature.
It investigates (among other things) the nature of the universe immediately after the Big Bang.
It also explores physics at temperatures not common for the past 15 billion years (or so).
All atoms are made
of protons, neutrons
Gluons hold quarks together
Photons hold atoms together
While quarks have similar electric charge, they have vastly different masses (but zero size!)
Jargon alert: 1 Giga Electron Volt
(GeV) is 100,000 times more energy
than the particle beam in your TV.
If you made a beam the hard way,
it would take 1,000,000,000 batteries
for precision physics
at low mass scales
Formerly rare processes
become high statistics
for discovery physics
at highest masses
In this collision, a top and
anti-top quark were created,
helping establish their existence
This collision is the most violent
ever recorded (and fully understood). It required that
particles hit within 10-19 m or
1/10,000 the size of a proton
White Sox Version
How Does the Afterglow Work?
Proton Electron Hydrogen
the universe was all concentrated at a single spot
You are here
Then God (or whoever, I’m not
getting into that tonight) said “Let there be light,”
and instead there was a vast explosion that created the universe and spread all of the matter that has ever been observed (and more) throughout the Cosmos.
Large explosions hot temperatures very high energies
Ice melts water evaporates steam ionizes atomic nuclei break apart quarks escape the nuclei….
(1 billion years)
(13.7 billion years)
Quarks differentiate (10-34 seconds?)
??? (Before that)
How do we know about the universe before 10-12 seconds?
Just what is the simplest and most fundamental thing in the universe?
Does the unification/simplification stuff discussed earlier continue to hold?
Possibly the true nature of particles is that they are actually minute vibrating 11-dimensional strings.
Freebie: This theory is the only candidate way to unify gravity with the quantum forces.
The Standard Model (quarks, leptons, three generations and four currently-distinct forces)
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