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WHERE AM I?. Online Anatomy Module 1. INTRO & TERMS. CELL. EPITHELIUM. CARTILAGE. MUSCLE. NERVOUS SYSTEM. AXIAL SKELETON. APPENDICULAR SKELETON. MUSCLES. EMBRYOLOGY. SKELETON & DISTINCT CARTILAGE ‘SKELETONS’. Ear cartilage. Nasal cartilage.

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slide1

WHERE AM I?

Online Anatomy Module 1

INTRO & TERMS

CELL

EPITHELIUM

CARTILAGE

MUSCLE

NERVOUS SYSTEM

AXIAL SKELETON

APPENDICULAR SKELETON

MUSCLES

EMBRYOLOGY

slide2

SKELETON & DISTINCT CARTILAGE ‘SKELETONS’

Ear cartilage

Nasal cartilage

Cartilage participates as pieces that develop, and stay attached to the skeleton

Xiphoid process

an extension to the breast-bone

Other cartilages act as separate skeletal elements in their own right: supporting the larynx (voice-box) [feel its firmness on yourself] and the trachea (windpipe) & bronchi

slide3

CARTILAGE & ITS SITES

Ears

Cartilage is a firm, but flexible, pressure-resisting tissue, needed to support and connect other tissues and structures

Nose

Airway

Ends of ribs

Spine disks

Joints

slide4

CARTILAGES: Technical names

Auricular cartilage

Ears

Nasal/septal cartilage

Nose

Laryngeal & tracheal cartilages

Airway

Ends of ribs

Costal cartilages

Spine disks

Intervertebral disks

Joints

Articular cartilages

slide5

CARTILAGE

PG

H2O

Cartilage cells introduceto the tissue resistance to pressure & an ability to recover shape , principally by aggregated proteoglycans able avidly to bind water.

The PGs themselves are held in place by a meshwork of fine collagen fibrils (tiny fibers).

Chondrocytes make a

Matrix of

Collagen II fibrilmeshwork trapping aggregated ProteoglycansPGs

L - Link protein

L

L

L

aggregating backbone ofHYALURONAN

L

PGs bind

PG

slide6

CARTILAGE

vertebral endplate

Cartilage cells introduceto the tissue resistance to pressure & an ability to recover shape, principally by aggregated proteoglycans able avidly to bind water. The PGs themselves are held in place by a meshwork of fine collagen fibrils.

Fibrocartilage is dense fibrous tissue with chondrocytes & their PGs substituted for fibroblasts

Intervertebral disk is under pressure, but has tensile strength to resist bursting and pull

fibrocartilage of annulus fibrosus

nucleus pulposus

slide7

CARTILAGE

Fibrocartilage is dense fibrous tissue with chondrocytes & their PGs substituted for fibroblasts

Intervertebral disk is under pressure, but has tensile strength to resist bursting and pull

fibrocartilage of annulus fibrosus

Fibril orientation differs from one fibrous layer to the next

nucleus pulposus

slide8

CARTILAGE

Intervertebral disk is under pressure, but usually has enough tensile strength to resist bursting and pull, however

fibrocartilage of annulus fibrosus

nucleus pulposus

Herniated/ruptured disk pressing on nerve leaving spinal canal, e.g., causing sciatica

slide9

JOINT/ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

resilient, thin, lubricated, attached, living, nourished, modifiable, vulnerable

Bone

Joint capsule

Muscle

slide10

JOINT TERMS

SYNOVIUM

Joint capsule

j c o a i v n i t t . y

Joint cartilageabsorbs and spreads load

Spongy subchondral bone absorbs and directs load to shaft

{

loose connective tissue

lining cells

slide11

SKELETON & CARTILAGE

Cartilage provides some flexibility & recovery of shape at critical places

Cartilage participates as pieces that develop, and stay attached to the skeleton

Other cartilage develops with bones (indeed, it precedes the bone), then remains at the ends to make the joint surface or articular cartilage

Facial and skull vault/dome bones form with negligible cartilage present

slide12

SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT

Skeletal piece of hyaline cartilage

Grows by internal expansion and from the surface

Cell enlargement/hypertrophy

Matrix calcification

Calcified cartilage can be resorbed like bone, and be attached to bone

selective erosion into mineralized cartilage

slide13

LATER ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION

Articular cartilage

Growth/epiphyseal plate

Secondary ossificationcenters

Shaft bonegrows by deposition on the outside, with mild resorption on the inside surface, plus osteonal remodelling in the interior

+

-

Bone would belarger thanin theprevious view

slide14

JOINT CARTILAGE

Chondrocytes in holes/lacunae

Matrix

Spongy subchondral bone

layer of mineralizedcartilage for attachment to bone

slide15

PG

H2O

JOINT CARTILAGE

Chondrocytes make a

Matrix of

Collagen II fibrilmeshwork trapping aggregated ProteoglycansPGs

L - Link protein

L

L

L

aggregating backbone ofHYALURONAN

L

PGs bind

PG

slide16

H2O

SO4

SO4

SO4

coo

H2O

PROTEOGLYCAN STRUCTURE & H2O-BINDING

Sugar side-chains of repeating pairs (disaccharides)

}

-XL-

GA-GU-

GA-GU-

GA-GU-

GA-GU-

Core protein

Side chains bear-bindingcharged groups

which mutually repel, but cannot disperse because ofO2 bonds& anchorage to thecore protein

slide17

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE NUTRITION

NutritionSYNOVIAL FLUIDLubrication

Why via synovial fluid? #1

Load-bearing surface, therefore vessels would not survive

Nutrition from marrow blocked by mineralized-cartilage layer

slide18

JOINT/ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

Resilient - Meshwork loaded with H2O-trapping huge molecules

Lubricated - Synovial fluid & its special molecules

Attached - Via mineralized lowest layer to subchondral bone

Living - Matrix allows diffusion to chondrocytes in lacunae

Nourished - From synovial vessels via synovial fluid

Modifiable- Cells continue to make & selectively destroy ECM

slide19

JOINT CARTILAGE VULNERABILITIES

Thin and easily worn away(osteoarthrosis)

Relies on very indirect nutrition

A few cells look after extensive matrix

Has nearby a loose CT (synovium) in which damaging defensive responses occur, e.g., to crystals (gout), virus? (rheumatoid arthritis)

Inflammatory synovial cells release damaging enzymes into synovial fluid, or cytokine signals turning on chondrocyte ECM destruction

Large ECM molecules (PGs & Collagen) easily cleaved by enzymes into useless shorter pieces

slide20

CARTILAGE TYPES

Precursor to bony skeleton

stays on asArticular cartilage

HYALINE CARTILAGE

Laryngeal pieces

Airway skeleton

ELASTIC CARTILAGE

Tracheal rings

like hyaline, but reinforced with elastic fibers

a few ‘vocal’ Laryngeal pieces

Auricle(“ear’)

joins bones, e.g., vertebrae, & tendons to bone

FIBROCARTILAGE

more like dense fibrous tissue

slide21

CARTILAGES: Technical names

Auricular cartilage elastic

Ears

Nasal/septal cartilage

Nose

Laryngeal & tracheal cartilages

Airway

Ends of ribs

Costal cartilages

Spine disks

Intervertebral disks fibrocartilage

Joints

Articular cartilages

The rest are hyaline, as is most of the embryonic skeleton

slide22

TYPICAL PIECE* OF CARTILAGE

PERICHONDRIUM ( dense irregular CT)

vessels

Chondrocytes

* Fibrocartilage does not occur as discrete pieces

slide23

CARTILAGE GROWTH

PERICHONDRIUM

Chondroblasts

Appositional growth by surface cell division & differentiation

Chondrocytes

Interstitial growth by interior cell division & matrix depostion

slide24

JOINT COMPONENTS

SYNOVIUM

JOINT CAPSULE

Joint cartilageabsorbs and spreads load

LIGAMENT

Spongy bone with struts/ trabeculae

Periosteum

Fibrous

Osteoblastic

slide25

JOINT CAPSULE & SYNOVIUM

SYNOVIUM

JOINT CAPSULE

JOINT SPACE

Synovium lines the joint capsule, but it itself has a lining or surface

slide26

EASY SLIDING

BOUNDARY LUBRICANT

FIRM ELASTIC SUBSTRATE

FLUID FILM

FIRM ELASTIC SUBSTRATE

slide27

Hydrophilic side attaches to cartilage

Bond to

Hydrophobic side lowers surface energy for NON-STICK surface

EASY SLIDING: Synovial Joint

Attached, polar PHOSPHOLIPID molecules

Articular layer

or Disc

Articular layer

WATER + HYALURONAN + PROTEINS

slide28

SYNOVIOCYTE ROLES

SYNOVIAL FLUID

‘FIBROBLAST’ synthesizes hyaluronan & glycoproteins

‘MACROPHAGE’ phagocytoses debris in the joint space

SUB-INTIMA for inflammatory defensive responses

slide29

ECM MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS - Pathology 2

Unwanted degradation by bystander inclusion in cytokine signaling pathways of defensive cells

IL-1

Lymphocytes of inner joint synovium

MF

IL-1

Joint cartilage cells also respond to the signal: enzymes enzyme inhibitors proteoglycans

Articular chondrocytes

= an inappropriate response causing cartilage matrix destruction - ARTHRITIS

slide30

JOINT PANNUS

SYNOVIUM

PANNUS is a overgrowth of inflamed synovium onto & eating into the articular cartilage

Joint cartilage

PTERYGIUM is a similar, but less inflamed growth of conjunctiva onto the eye’s cornea

slide31

SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT

Skeletal piece of hyaline cartilage

Grows by internal expansion and from the surface

Cell enlargement/hypertrophy

Matrix calcification

Calcified cartilage can be resorbed like bone, and be attached to bone

selective erosion into mineralized cartilage

slide32

EARLY ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION

}

EPIPHYSIS

perichondrium

}

periosteum

Bony collarprovides support as mineralized cartilage is eaten away

DIAPHYSIS/SHAFT

primary ossification front

slide33

LATER ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION

Articular cartilage

Growth/epiphyseal plate

Secondary ossificationcenters

Shaft bonegrows by deposition on the outside, with mild resorption on the inside surface, plus osteonal remodelling in the interior

+

-

Bone would belarger thanin theprevious view

slide34

ZONES/LAYERS OF THE GROWTH PLATE

}

RESTING

}

PROLIFERATION

}

HYPERYTROPHY

}

CALCIFICATION

}

OSSIFICATION

Expansion

Matching erosion

Osteoclasts stop the trabeculae from forever extending

new boneoncalcified cartilage

slide36

Caution how you exit.

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Unfortunately there is

no way that you can

directly reach other

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clicking on them. You

get there by going back

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Anatomy menu

WHERE AM I?

Online Anatomy

Module 1

You are at the End

ORIENTATION

CELL

EPITHELIUM

CARTILAGE

MUSCLE

NERVOUS SYSTEM

AXIAL SKELETON

APPENDICULAR SKELETON

MUSCLES

EMBRYOLOGY

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